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MCM Exam 1 > Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (42):
1

Highest Energy Content per Source

Fat > Alcohol > Carbs = Protein

2

"New" Food Pyramid

Based on 2,000 kcal/day.
10-15% from protein
25-35% from fat
Remainder from carbs

3

Essential Fatty Acids

Linoleic acid and Alpha-linolenic acid

4

Omega FAs

Double bond every nth carbon (ex: Omega 3 has double bonds on every 3rd carbon)

5

Determination of Protein Anabolism/Catabolism

Nitrogen balance. 1 g N = 6.25 g protein

6

Essential AAs (10)

Leu, Iso, Val, His, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Trp, Arg

7

Nonpolar AAs

G A V L I P W F M

Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Iso, Pro, Trp, Phe, Met

8

Polar AAs

S T C N Y Q

Ser, Thr, Cys, Asn, Tyr, Gln

9

Basic AAs

R H K
Arg, His, Lys

10

Acidic AAs

E D
Glu, Asp

11

K+ Sources

Unprocessed foods

12

Na+ Sources

Animal foods and dietary salt

13

Cl- Sources

Dietary salt

14

Ca 2+ Sources

Dairy, soybeans, green veggies

15

PO4 3- Sources

Dairy, wheat germ, bran, beans, walnuts

16

Mg 2+ Sources

Meat fish, veggies, nuts, grains

17

Thiamine (B1) Coenzyme Form

Thiamine pyrophosphate

18

Thiamine Deficiency From:

Alcoholism

19

Clinical Manifestations of Thiamine Deficiency

Wernicke's (ataxia, eye problems), Korsakoff's (psychosis), Dry Beriberi (muscle wasting), Wet Beriberi (cardiac problems).

20

Riboflavin (B2) Coenzyme Form

FAD/FMN

21

Riboflavin Deficiency From:

Poor dietary intake or absorption issues

22

Clinical Manifestations of Riboflavin Deficiency

Corneal neovascularization, cheilosis, magenta colored tongue.

23

Niacin (B3) Coenzyme Forms

NAD(H) and NADP(H)

24

Niacin Deficiency From:

Hartnup Disease, Malnutrition

25

Clinical Manifestations of Niacin Deficiency

Pellagra

26

Pantothenic Acid (B5) Coenzyme Form

CoA

27

Pyridoxine

Vitamin B6

28

Biotin (B7)

Cofactor for carboxylation enzymes

29

Biotin Deficiency From:

Excessive consumption of raw eggs

30

Clinical Manifestations of Biotin Deficiency

Alopecia, rashes, bowel inflammation, muscle pain

31

Folic Acid (B9)

Coenzyme for methylation reactions

32

Folic Acid Deficiency From

Alcoholism and some pregnancies

33

Folate Deficiency During Pregnancy Can Cause:

Neural tube defects (ie spina bifida)

34

Ascorbate (Vit C)

Cofactor for collagen synthesis, dopamine, Fe absorption, antioxicant

35

Cobalamin Deficiency From:

Anemia, pancreatitius, vegeterianism, resection of terminal ileum

36

Clinical Manifestations of Folic Acid Deficiency

Anemia and Homocysteinemia (CVD, DVT, embolism, stroke)

37

Clinical Manifestations of Cobalamin Deficiency

Anemia, Neuropathy, Homocysteinemia (CVD, DVT, stroke)

38

Vitamin A Functions

Vision and maintenance of epithelium

39

Vitamin A Deficiency From:

Extreme malnutrition, fat malabsorption, and liver cirrohosis.

40

Clinical Manifestations of Vitamin A Deficiency

Night blindness, vision problems, frequent infections.

41

Vitamin D Functions (3)

Increase phosphate absorption (GI), stimulate reabsorption of Ca 2+ and secretion of phosphate (kidneys) and bone resorption.

42

Vitamin D Deficiencies

Rickets in childhood and Osteomalacia in adulthood.