Biopsychology Flashcards Preview

AQA Psychology Alevel > Biopsychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biopsychology Deck (113)
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define NS

consists of CNS and PNS


define CNS

consists of the brain and spinal chord


define PNS

sends info from the environment to the CNS and transmits info from the CNS to the muscles and glands within the body


define somatic NS

transmits info from receptor cells in the sense organs to the CNS and receives info from the CNS that directs muscles to act


define autonomic NS

transmits info to and from internal organs - operates involuntarily and is divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic NS


give the two main functions of the NS

- to collect, process and respond to info in the environment
- to co-ordinate the working of diff organs and cells in the body


what differentiates the human brain from that of other mammals

the outer layer (cerebral cortex)is highly developed


what is the spinal chord responsible for

reflex actions


what does the endocrine system do

works alongside NS to control vital functions in the body


give some differences between the NS and endocrine system

- fast
- brief effects
- electrochemical signals (AP) via nerves
endocrine system
- slow
- long lasting effects
- hormonal signals via bloodstream


what is the master gland and what does it do

pituitary gland - controls the release of hormones from all other glands in the body


describe the sequence of events that occurs in the NS following the identification of a threat (fight or flight)

- sympathetic NS triggered by hypothalamus
- pituitary gland releases ACTH to trigger adrenal glands
- adrenaline is released, changing various bodily functions


give some changes to bodily functions following the release of adrenaline

- increased HR
- vasoconstriction near digestive organs to inhibit digestion
- pupils dilate
- inhibited saliva production


describe the sequence of events that occurs in the NS after a threat has passed (fight or flight)

- parasympathetic system activates to calm body
- HR decreases
- stimulates saliva production
- pupils constrict
- stimulates digestion


define gland

organ in the body that synthesises and releases substances such as hormones


define hormone

chemical messenger produced by glands that is secreted directly into the bloodstream


define fight or flight response

the way an animal responds when stressed in which the body becomes physiologically aroused in readiness


define adrenaline

a hormone produced by the adrenal glands which is part of the body's immediate street response system


define neurone

basic building block of NS which transmit info through chemical and electrical signals


define sensory neurone

neurone that transmits sensory info from the PNS to the CNS


define motor neurone

neurone that connects CNS to effectors such as muscles and glands


define relay neurone

neurone that connects the sensory and motor neurones to each other or other relay neurones


what structures do all neurones possess

- cell body (contains organelles such as the nucleus)
- dendron (transmit impulses towards cell body)
- axon (transmit impulses away from cell body)
- synaptic bulb


what structure do some neurones possess

myelin sheaths


give the advantage associated with myelin sheaths

- increases the rate of transmission of an impulse
- allows impulse to jump between nodes of Ranvier


define synaptic transmission

process by which neighbouring neurones communicate with each other by sending info in the form of chemicals across the synaptic cleft that separates them


define neurotransmitter

chemicals released from synaptic vesicles that relay signals across the synapse from one neurone to another


what are the two types of neurotransmitter function

- excitatory
- inhibitory


define excitation

when a neurotransmitter, such as noradrenaline, increases the positive charge of the postsynaptic neurone, increasing the likelihood that the neurone will fire and pass on the electrical impulse


define inhibition

when a neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, increases the negative charge of the postsynaptic neurone, decreasing the likelihood that the neurone will fire and pass on the electrical impulse