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AQA Psychology Alevel > Research Methods > Flashcards

Flashcards in Research Methods Deck (182)
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define experimental method

the manipulation of an IV to measure its effect on the DV


define aim

general statement of what the researcher intends to investigate


define hypothesis

a clear, precise, testable statement that states the relationship between the variables being investigated


define directional hypothesis

states the direction of difference or relationship


define non-directional hypothesis

does not state direction


define variables

anything that can vary or change within an investigation


define IV

some aspect of the experimental situation that is manipulated by the researcher so that an effect on the DV can be measured


define DV

variable that is measured by the researcher


define operationalisation

clearly defining variables in terms of how they can be measured


define EV

variable, other than the IV, that may have an effect on the DV - do not vary systematically with the IV


define CV

variable, other than the IV, that may have an effect on the DV - does vary systematically with the IV


define demand characteristics

any cue from the researcher or research situation that may be interpreted by cps as revealing the purpose of the investigation - may lead to a change in B


define investigator effects

any effect of the investigator's B on the research outcome - may include selection and interaction with pps


define randomisation

use of chance in order to control effects of bias when designing materials and deciding order of condition


define standardisation

using exactly same formalised procedures and instructions for pps


what is an independent groups design

pps allocated to diff groups where each group experiences a diff experimental condition


what is a repeated measures design

all pps experience all conditions within an experiment


what is a matched pairs design

pairs of pps are matched on some variable that may affect the DV, then one member is allocated to condition A and the other condition B


define random allocation

attempt to control pp variables in an independent groups design which ensures each pp has the same chance of being in one condition as any other


define counterbalancing

attempt to control order effects in repeated measures design; half pps experience conditions in one order, and other half in opposite order


give two limitations of independent groups design

- pps who occupy each group are not the same (effects on DV may be due to pp variables, not IV)
- less economical than repeated measures as each pp only produces one result


give two strengths of independent groups design

- no order effects
- pps less likely to get bored


give two limitations of repeated measures design

- order effects (cause boredom, deterioration in performance)
- pps more likely to work out aim of study


give two strengths of repeated measures design

- pp variables are controlled
- more economical that independent groups design (less pps needed)


give two limitations of matched pairs design

- time-consuming
- expensive


give two strengths of matched pairs design

- order effects and DC less of a problem
- fewer pp variables


define lab experiment

an experiment that takes place in a controlled environment within which that researcher manipulates the IV and records the effect on the DV, whilst maintaining a strict control over EVs


define field experiment

an experiment that takes place in a natural setting within which the researcher manipulates the IV and records the effect on the DV


define quasi experiment

a study in which the IV is not determined by anyone, it simply exists (e.g. being old and young)


define natural experiment

an experiment where the change in the IV is not brought about by the researcher but instead occurs naturally