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Flashcards in Biostats/Other Deck (31):
1

When to use a chi-square test for measuring statistical associations? What about z-tests, t-tests and ANOVA?

Categorical data = chi-square

2 means = t and z tests

3+ means = ANOVA

2

What does a hazard ratio represent?

Event rate in treatment group compared to comparison group

3

Cluster analysis

Study randomization occurs at the group level, not the individual level

4

False positive ratio

1 - specificity

5

False negative ratio

1 - sensitivity

6

Study population alters behavior because they know they are being observed

Hawthorne effect

7

What does power represent?

The ability of a study to identify a statistically significant difference between 2 groups

8

Number needed to treat

Absolute risk reduction = incidence in comparison group - incidence in treatment group.

NNT = 1/ARR

9

Susceptibility bias

A form of selection bias where a treatment regimen depends on the severity of their disease and is not randomized

10

Method of characterizing exposure-disease association in case-control trials

Odds ratio = ad/bc

11

Prevalence

Incidence x time

12

Attributable risk percent

(Risk in exposed - risk in unexposed)/risk in exposed

Also = (RR-1)/RR

13

How can you control for confounding?

Matching, restriction and randomization during the study design stage.

Stratification and statistical modeling during the analysis stage.

14

Requirement for a patient to enter hospice care

Prognosis ≤ 6 months

15

When can you accept nonmonetary gifts from interested third parties?

Direct benefit to patient care and of small value

16

How is benzo intoxication differentiated from opioid intoxication?

No pupillary changes or respiratory depression

17

When does shivering decrease in patients with progressive hypothermia? How does treatment vary from stage to stage?

Transition from mild (90-95F or 32-35C) to moderate (82-90F or 28-32C) hypothermia.

Mild = passive external rewarming

Moderate = active external rewarming

Severe = active internal rewarming

18

Treatment for ethylene glycol intoxication

Fomepizole or ethanol to competitively inhibit alcohol dehydrogenase, preventing formation of toxic oxalic acid and glycolic acid.

19

Antidote for cyanide poisoning

Hydroxocobalamin > sodium thiosulfate. If there is no antidote available give nitrites to induce methemoglobinemia.

20

When do you administer sodium bicarb to a patient who overdosed on TCAs?

Hypotension, QT prolongation or ventricular arrhythmia.

21

Antidote for organophosphate poisoning?

Atropine and pralidoxime are anticholinergics that will decrease parasympathetic stimulation from excess ACh due to organophosphate inhibition of AChE.

22

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome tetrad

Autonomic dysfunction, rigidity, fever and mental status changes

23

Type B adverse drug reaction

Dose independent. Type A is dose dependent.

24

Drugs used to reverse neuroleptic malignant syndrome

#1) Dantrolene (muscle relaxant). Then bromocriptine and amantadine can be used.

25

Why should patients taking antipsychotics avoid being out in the cold?

Antipsychotics, especially 1st generation (fluphenazine) can inhibit the shivering mechanism and cause hypothermia.

26

What is the threshold for giving activated charcoal to a patient who overdosed on TCAs?

≤ 2 hours

27

Why do TCAs cause arrhythmias?

They inhibit fast Na channels in the His-Purkinje system

28

Management of patient with caustic ingestion?

Remove clothes, serial KUB/CXR to r/o perforation +/- gastrograffin in perf is suspected. If no perf, endoscopy within 24 hours.

29

Treatment of salicylate toxicity

Alkalinize urine with HCO3

30

Treatment of anticholinergic toxicity?

Physostigmine (AChE inhibitor)

31

Treatment of beta-blocker toxicity?

Glucagon