Ophthalmology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ophthalmology Deck (18):
1

Hordeolum

Staph abscess of eyelid, treat with warm compress. I&D if not resolved by 48 hours.

2

Chalazion. Treatment for recurrent chalazion?

Granulomatous inflammation of meibomian gland. If recurrent, rule out sebaceous carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma with biopsy and histopathology.

3

3 main categories of diabetic retinopathy

Simple: microaneurysms, hemorrhages, exudates and retinal edema

Pre-proliferative: cotton wool spots

Proliferative: newly formed blood vessels

Treat with argon laser

4

Endophthalmitis

Vitreal infection that presents as pain and decreased visual acuity with swollen eyelids, conjunctiva, hypopyon and corneal edema within 6 weeks after surgery. Treat with intra-vitral antibiotic injection or vitrecotmy.

5

Sympathetic ophthalmia

Immune-mediated inflammation of the opposite eye after one eye is injured. Likely due to uncovering of hidden antigens in the injured eye.

6

Optic glioma occurs in NF?

NF1. NF2 = bilateral acoustic neuromas

7

Most common presentation of herpes keratitis

Dendritic ulcer

8

How does herpes retinitis differ from CMV retinitis?

CMV retinitis is typically painless and not associated with keratitis or conjuctivitis. PE shows hemorrhages and fluffy gray lesions around vessels. HSV and VZV are very painful and cause keratitis with peripheral pale retinal lesions and central retinal necrosis.

9

Preferred medication for bacterial conjunctivitis in contact lens wearers

Fluoroquinolones

10

Most common virus involved in viral conjucntivitis

Adenovirus

11

How does acute hyperglycemia cause blurry vision?

Myopic increase in lens thickness and intraocular hypotension secondary to hyperosmolarity

12

Medications used to treat glaucoma

Mannitol can reduce intraocular pressure by diuresis

Pilocarpine allows for increased flow of aqueous humor through canals of Schlem.

Timolol and acetazolamide reduce production of aqueous humor

13

Triggers of acute angle glaucoma

Decongestants, antiemetics and anticholinergics

14

Primary risk factor for macular degeneration

Increasing age

15

Arterial supply to the eye

Ophthalmic artery
1) Central retinal artery supplies the inner retina
2) Ciliary artery supplies the choroid and anterior globe

16

Treatment of central retinal artery occlusion

1) Ocular massage and high flow O2
2) Immediate referral to ophtho

17

Difference between opthalmic HSV and VZV infection

VZV remains in a V1 distribution, HSV does not

18

Species involved in contact lens keratitis

Pseudomonas and serratia