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Flashcards in Biotechnology Deck (37)
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1

What was the beginning of the era of recombinant DNA technology?

The discovery of restriction endonucleases in bacteria

2

What is a common approach used to clone a specific gene?

Insert a set of DNA fragments that together make up an entire genome of the organism into a population of E coli
All of the E coli cells= DNA library because each cell contains a portion of the total genome of the organism

3

What is a subunit vaccine?

composed of a purified antigenic determinant that is separated from the disease-causing organism

4

Define iatrogenic infection

"brought forth by a healer"- illness caused by or resulting from medical treatment

5

Define nosocomial infection

result of treatment in a hospital, but secondary to the patients original condition

6

Sterilization

Absence of all life

7

Disinfection

Killing/removing pathogens

8

Antiseptic

disinfectant applied to tissue

9

Bactericide

substance that kills/removes only bacteria

10

Sepsis

sever infection leading to a systemic immune response

11

asepsis

using aseptic technique

12

microbiostasis

inhibition of microbe growth

13

activity

drugs tested to determine the lowest concentration which inhibits microbe- aka MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration)

14

combination therapy

use of more than 1 antibiotic to increase spectrum or killing effect

15

synergism

increased killing effect by using multiple antibiotics

16

antagonism

1 antibiotic interferes with the action of another

17

What are the 3 methods of sterilization?

moist heat- steam, boiling water
autoclave- steam with pressure
dry heat- flame, oven

18

What are the antibiotics that are inhibitors of cell wall synthesis?

Penicillin
Cephalosporins
Bacitracin
Vancomycin
Isoniazid

19

What are the cell membrane diruptors antibiotics?

Polymyxin B and E

20

What are the antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis?

Streptomycin
Tetracyline
Chloramphenicol
Erythromycin
Spectinomycin

21

What are the antibiotics that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis?

Rifampin
Quinolones

22

What are the antimetabolite antibiotics?

Sulfonamides (sulfa drugs)
Trimethoprim/Nitrofurantoin/ Bactrum

23

What do inhibitors of cell wall synthesis do?

Prevent cross-linking of peptidoglycan by binding to enzyme receptor sites

24

What antibiotics are B-lactam chemical structure?

Penicillin and derivatives (ampicillin, amoxicillin)
Cephalosporins (derivatives grouped into generations)

25

Which inhibitor of cell wall synthesis is only used topically and why?

Bacitracin
- because it's toxic to kidneys

26

What is vancomycin used for?

Initially to fight Staph
Now used for systemic infections
Quite toxic- damage to kidneys, nerve deafness, skin rashes

27

What does isoniazid do?

Inhibits synthesis of mycolic acids in cell walls of mycobacteria
Active against myobacteria only

28

What do polymyxin B and E do?

Replace Mg and Ca from membrane lipids disrupting the structure of the bacterial cell membrane
topical use only because toxic

29

Which inhibitor of protein synthesis is often used in conjunction with penicillin?

streptomycin- synergistic effects in streptococcal infections

30

What are the derivatives of streptomycin?

kanamycin
gentamycin