Flashcards in Biotechnology Deck (37)
What was the beginning of the era of recombinant DNA technology?
The discovery of restriction endonucleases in bacteria
What is a common approach used to clone a specific gene?
Insert a set of DNA fragments that together make up an entire genome of the organism into a population of E coli
All of the E coli cells= DNA library because each cell contains a portion of the total genome of the organism
What is a subunit vaccine?
composed of a purified antigenic determinant that is separated from the disease-causing organism
Define iatrogenic infection
"brought forth by a healer"- illness caused by or resulting from medical treatment
Define nosocomial infection
result of treatment in a hospital, but secondary to the patients original condition
Absence of all life
disinfectant applied to tissue
substance that kills/removes only bacteria
sever infection leading to a systemic immune response
using aseptic technique
inhibition of microbe growth
drugs tested to determine the lowest concentration which inhibits microbe- aka MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration)
use of more than 1 antibiotic to increase spectrum or killing effect
increased killing effect by using multiple antibiotics
1 antibiotic interferes with the action of another
What are the 3 methods of sterilization?
moist heat- steam, boiling water
autoclave- steam with pressure
dry heat- flame, oven
What are the antibiotics that are inhibitors of cell wall synthesis?
What are the cell membrane diruptors antibiotics?
Polymyxin B and E
What are the antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis?
What are the antibiotics that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis?
What are the antimetabolite antibiotics?
Sulfonamides (sulfa drugs)
What do inhibitors of cell wall synthesis do?
Prevent cross-linking of peptidoglycan by binding to enzyme receptor sites
What antibiotics are B-lactam chemical structure?
Penicillin and derivatives (ampicillin, amoxicillin)
Cephalosporins (derivatives grouped into generations)
Which inhibitor of cell wall synthesis is only used topically and why?
- because it's toxic to kidneys
What is vancomycin used for?
Initially to fight Staph
Now used for systemic infections
Quite toxic- damage to kidneys, nerve deafness, skin rashes
What does isoniazid do?
Inhibits synthesis of mycolic acids in cell walls of mycobacteria
Active against myobacteria only
What do polymyxin B and E do?
Replace Mg and Ca from membrane lipids disrupting the structure of the bacterial cell membrane
topical use only because toxic
Which inhibitor of protein synthesis is often used in conjunction with penicillin?
streptomycin- synergistic effects in streptococcal infections