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Flashcards in Blackout Deck (24)
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1

differentials for blackout

reflex syncope
arrhythmia
outflow obstruction
postural hypotension
orthostatic
cerebrovascular

2

key features of a history

any warning?
any precipitating factors?
head trauma?
how long?
bite they tongue?
incontinence?
recovery after blackout?

3

epileptic

before: may have aura or no warning
during: minutes, stereotypes, tongue biting
after: slow recovery and confusion

4

vasovagal

before: sweating, pallor, nausea
during: seconds, twitch or incontinence
after: rapid recovery

5

arrhythmia

before: no warning
during: seconds, twitch or incontinence
after: rapid spontaneous recovery

6

examination

tongue - bitten
dehydration
headtrauma
heart
carotid bruits
blood pressure
focal neurological signs

7

investigations

bloods - capillary glucose, FBC, U+Es
ECG
echocardiogram
carotid sinus massage
brain scan

8

status epilepticus

seizures lasting for more than 30 minutes or multiple seizures without intervening regained consciousness

9

management of status epilepticus

PR benzodiazepines e.g. lorazepam
ECG and BP monitoring

10

causes of status epilepticus

poor compliance with anti convulsants
metabolic
alcohol
infection
cerebral tumour
head injury or abscess
hypoxia
hypertensive encephalopathy

11

Strokes-Adams

sudden transient loss of consciousness induced by a slow/absent pulse and then loss of CO

12

causes of strokes-adams

complete heart block - 3rd degree
Sino-atrial disease

13

what is strokes-adams treated with?

defibrillator implantation

14

epilepsy

a tendency to recurrent, unprovoked seizures

15

seizure

transient excessive eléctrica activity with motor, sensory or cognitive manifestations

16

tonic clonic

patients are initially rigid and then convulsive with rhythmical muscular contractions

17

absence

loses consciousness and appears vacant and unresponsive to observers

18

atonic

brief loss of muscle tone, causing patient to fall to the ground

19

tonic

rigidity

20

clonic

rhythmical muscular contractions

21

myoclonic

extremely brief muscular contractions seen as jerky movements

22

partial complex

impaired consciousness

23

partial simple

unimpaired consciousness

24

rare cardiac causes of collapse

hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
long QT syndrome
brugada syndrome
arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia