Bladder cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bladder cancer Deck (13):
1

what are the types and which is most predominant in UK

transitional cell carcinoma (>90% in UK), squamous cell (assoc with schistosomiasis), adenocarcinoma

2

what are the 3 grades and which is differentiated

grade 1-3, grade 1 is differentiates, grade 3 poorly differentiated

3

what % are confined to bladder mucosa

80%. only 20% penetrates muscle

4

what is the presentation

painless haematuria, recurrent UTIs, voiding irritability

5

associations

smoking, aromatic amines (rubber industry), analine dyes, chronic cystitis, schistosomiasis, pelvic irradiation

6

what tests can be done

cystoscopy with biopsy diagnostic; urine- microscopy and culture (cancer- may have sterile pyuria); UT urogram; bimanual EUA, MRI or lymphangiography

7

what is the staging

Tis, Ta (epithelium), T1 (lamina propria), T2 (superficial muscles); T3 (deep muscle); T4 (invasion beyond bladder)

8

treatment- Tis,a,1

diathermy via transurethral cystoscopy/transurethral resection of the bladder

9

treatment T2-3

radical cystectomy. radiotherapy, post op chemo, neoadjuvant chemo

10

treatment T4

palliative chemo/radio. chronic catheterisation

11

what is the follow up of high and low risk tumours

high risk- every 3 months for 2 years, then every 6 months. low risk- first after 9 months, then yearly

12

how and where does the tumour spread to

local- to pelvic structures. lymphatic- to iliac and para aortic nodes. haematogenous- liver and lungs

13

complications

cystectomy can result in sexual and urinary malfunction. massive bladder haemorrhage