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Flashcards in blind tasting Deck (454):
1

abv for Beaujolais

moderate = 12.5 - 13.9 %

2

abv for Chinon

moderate = 12.5 - 13.9 %

3

abv for Barolo / Barbaresco

moderate + to high
14 - 14.9 %
> 15 %

4

abv for Brunello di Montalcino

moderate plus, elevated
14 - 14.9 %

5

abv for Chianti Classico

moderate to moderate plus
12.5 - 13.9 %
14 - 14.9 %

6

abv for Amarone della Valpolicella

high = < 15%

7

abv for Rioja

moderate to moderate plus
12.5 - 13.9 %
14 - 14.9 %

8

abv for Ribera Del Duero

moderate plus to high
14 -14.9%
> 15%

9

abv for Barossa Shiraz

Medium plus to high
14 - 14.9 %
> 15%

10

abv for South Australia Grenache

moderate plus to high
14 - 14.9%
> 15%

11

abv for Coonawarra Cabernet Sauvignon

moderate plus to high
14 - 14.9%
> 15%

12

abv for California Zinfandel

medium plus to high
14 - 14.9 %
> 15%

13

abv for Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon

moderate plus to high
14 - 14.9%
> 15%

14

abv for Oregon Pinot Noir

moderate to moderate plus
12.5 - 13.9 %
14 - 14.9 %

15

abv for South Africa Pinotage

Moderate
12.5 - 13.9 %

16

abv for Mendoza Malbec

moderate plus to high
14 - 14.9 %
> 15 %

17

abv for Chilean Carmenere

moderate to moderate plus
12.5 - 13.9 %
14 - 14.9 %

18

Define Balance in a wine?

"seamless integration of structure, fruit, oak, and other components, wherein no single element overwhelms or stands out."

19

What is the criteria for classic wine?

1. The style of the wine is produced from a variety or varieties commonplace in a particular region
2. The wine has been grown and vinified through methods traditionally employed in the wine's place of origin.
3. The wine is present and available in major international markets
4. The wine exhibits one or more characterisitcs that make it distinctive

20

What is complexity in a wine?

The sum of a wine's aromas and flavors, and a measure of how much they change with time in a glass. Cellar worthy wines generally gain complexity with age. Low complexity wines are like 3 cord pop songs that are entertaining but tire.

21

abv of left bank Bordeaux

moderate to moderate plus
12.5-13.9 %
14 - 14.9 %

22

abv of right bank Bordeaux

strong moderate to moderate plus
13.5 %
14 - 14.9 %

23

abv of Northern Rhone Syrah

moderate to moderate plus
12.5 - 13.9 %
14 - 14.9 %

24

abv of Chateauneuf-du-Pape

moderate plus to high
14 - 14.9 %
> 15 % for some prestige cuvees. Clos st. Jean 2011 listed at 16 %

25

abv of Cote d'Or Pinot Noir

moderate to moderate plus
12.5 - 13.9 %
14 - 14.9 % - most examples fall in the medium range

26

abv for California Pinot Noir

moderate plus to high
14 - 14.9 %
> 15 %

27

abv for Cote d'Or Chardonnay

moderate to moderate plus
12.5 - 13.9 %
14 - 14.9 % - rarely

28

abv for Chablis Chardonnay

medium minus, diminished
10 - 12.4 %
sometimes moderate
12.5 - 13.9 %

29

abv for Sancerre

medium minus, diminished
10 - 12.4 %
sometimes moderate
12.5 - 13.9 %

30

abv for Muscadet

medium minus, diminished
10 - 12.4 %

31

abv of Vouvray Chenin Blanc

medium minus, diminished
10 - 12.4 %
sometimes moderate
12.5 - 13.9 %

32

abv for Savenierres

medium to medium plus
12.5 - 13.9 %
14 - 14.9 %

33

abv for Alsace Riesling

moderate
12.5 - 13.9 %

34

abv for Alsace Pinot Gris

medium to medium plus
12.5 - 13.9 %
14 - 14.9 %

35

abv for Italian Pinot Grigio

moderate
12.5 - 13.9 %

36

abv for Rias Baixas Albarino

moderate
12.5 - 13.9 %

37

abv for Austrian Gruner Veltliner

moderate to moderate plus
12.5 - 13.9 %
14 - 14.9 %

38

abv for Mosel Kabinett Riesling

low
< 10 %

39

abv for Rheingau GG Riesling

moderate - keep in mind wine is dry
12.5 - 13.9 %

40

abv for Marlborough New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc

moderate
12.5 - 13.9 %

41

abv of Hunter Valley Semillon

moderate minus
10 - 12.4 %

42

abv of Clare or Eden Valley Riesling

moderate minus
10 - 12.4 %
moderate
12.5 - 13.9 %

43

abv of California Chardonnay

moderate to moderate plus
12.5 - 13.9 %
14 - 14.9 %

44

abv of California Viognier

moderate plus to high
14 - 14.9 %
> 15 %

45

abv for Salta Torrentes

moderate plus
14 - 14.9 %

46

abv of white Bordeaux

moderate
12.5 - 13.9 %

47

abv of Condrieu

moderate plus
14 - 14.9 %

48

What is the scale of abv levels?

low = < 10 %
moderate minus = 10 - 12.4 %
moderate = 12.5 - 13.9 %
moderate plus = 14 - 14.9 %
high = > 15%

49

what is the preferred soil type of Grenache

hot, dry, stony soils such as schist or granite

50

typical oak regime for Grenache CDP

large neutral barrel, or concrete vats

51

what is the typical structure for Grenache CDP

dry
moderate to full bodied
moderate to moderate plus tannin
moderate to moderate plus acidity
moderate to moderate plus abv %

52

Other aromas for Grenache CDP

powdered sugar
dried orange, grapefruit peel
old leather - brett?

53

Spice aromas for Grenache CDP

curing spices
black pepper
juniper
clove
licorice
lavender

54

Herbal aromas for Grenache CDP

rosemary
brewed black tea
savory herbs

55

Floral aromas for Grenache CDP

red flowers
dried lavander

56

2 flaws common to Grenache CDP

volatile acidity
oxidation

57

Fruit aromas for Grenache CDP

cooked, dried fruits
strawberry, cherry
roasted red plum
blackberry
blueberry
raisin
fig

58

Color of Grenache CDP

ruby
slight orange rim, even in youth
mod concentration
other grapes in the blend can add blue and purple tones

59

Fruit aromas for Australian Grenache

cooked, stewed fruits
strawberry
marachino cherry
plum pie
prune
fig
raisin

60

Herbal aromas of Australian Grenache

mint
menthol
eucalyptus
black tea leaf
dried savory herbs

61

Spice aromas of Australian Grenache

curing spices
black pepper
licorice

62

Earth aromas for Australian Grenache

moderate - crushed vitamin

63

Oak aromas for Australian Grenache

neutral to moderate use
new French barrique or American hogshead

64

Structure of Australian Grenache

Dry, but ripe attack
ripe sappy fruit
moderate plus to full body
moderate acidity
moderate tannin
moderate plus to high abv %

65

Color of Argentine Malbec

dark, ruby / purple
blue tones
electric pink rim
moderate plus to high concentration

66

Structure of Argentine Malbec

dry, but ripe attack
full body
moderate to moderate plus acidity - elevation
moderate to moderate plus tannin
moderate plus to high abv %

67

Oak regime for Argentine Malbec

Low to high
New French barrique and American oak
vanilla, baking spice, chocolate, cinnamon

68

Floral aromas for Argentine Malbec

purple and red flowers
violets, damson, carnation
florals are expressive in high elevation wines

69

Fruit aromas for Argentine Malbec

Ripe and lush
black fruit: black raspberry, black cherry, blackberry
blue fruit: concord grape jam, plum, blueberry
red fruit: raspberry liqueur
dried fruit: fig, raisin, prune

70

What is the aroma of American oak?

Dark, roasted aromas that catch your attention before you get your nose in the glass. Coconut, dill, fresh cut wood, toast, and semi sweet chocolate, coffee bean can all indicate American oak. Look above the glass.

71

personal tell for Gruner Veltliner.

Green fruit and radish. Green melon specifically.

72

color of Tempranillo- Rioja

Ruby with moderate minus to moderate concentration. I have seen darker examples. Especially in Ribera del Deuro.

73

fruit aromas for Tempranillo - Rioja

Tart and sweet fruits.
Red fruit: cherry, strawberry, red currant
Sour Asian plum
Dried plum

74

Gran Reserva styles of Rioja will can display what 2 faults?

Oxidation, and Brettanomyces

75

Floral aromas for Tempranillo - Rioja

Red flowers, and dried flowers

76

Herbal aromas for Tempranillo - Rioja

Tobacco, and dill. Think dill pickle

77

other aromas for Tempranillo - Rioja

Sweet and Sour sauce.
Iodine
Leather
Spice

78

Earth aromas for Tempranillo - Rioja

moderate to high minerality
baked earth
clay
compost

79

Oak aromas of Tempranillo - Rioja

Low to moderate use of New American or mixed American / French barrels.
Extended time in barrel for Reserva and Gran Reserva styles - vanilla, coconut, dill, cumin, curry, fenugreek, sandalwood

Bourbon barrel

80

What is the structure for Tempranillo - Rioja

dry
moderate plus body
moderate to moderate plus tannin
moderate plus acidity
moderate to moderate plus abv %

81

color of Carmenere

dark ruby with purple tones
moderate plus concentration
can have staining of tears

82

fruit aromas of carmenere

ripe and lush fruit
black fruit: cassis, blackberry, black plum, black cherry
stewed tomato
black cherry cake - red velvet cake

83

floral aromas of carmenere

violets and purple flowers

84

green, herbal, pyrazine aromas of carmenere

strong green notes contrast ripe fruit
green bell pepper
celery
camphor
jalepeno

85

spice aromas of carmenere

black pepper

86

oak aromas of carmenere

low to moderate use of new French oak
chocolate
campfire smoke

87

structure of carmenere

dry, with ripe attack
moderate plus body
moderate to moderate plus acidity
moderate tannin
moderate plus to high abv %

88

color of Marsanne - Northern Rhone white

yellow with hints of gold and green
moderate plus to high concentration

89

intensity of aromas for Marsanne - Northern Rhone white

moderate plus intensity

90

fruit aromas of Marsanne - Northern Rhone white

ripe stone fruit: apricot, apricot pit, white peach, white plum
ripe tree fruit: quince, pear, baked apple
melon
orange marmalade, citron or lemon oil

91

are there any oxidation notes for Marsanne

yes,
likely aromas of almond, marzipan, hazelnut
root veg, or root beer

92

some wine making notes of Marsanne

yes,
some butter and cream

93

floral aromas of Marsanne

yes,
white flowers, honeysuckle, acacia

94

spice aromas of Marsanne

cinnamon, and musk

95

other aromas for Marsanne

beeswax, honey, parsnip, root beer

96

earth aromas of Marsanne

moderate to high minerality
granite and stone

97

oak aromas of Marsanne

neutral casks or low to moderate use of new French oak:
vanilla pod,
toast
smoke
baking spice

98

structure of Marsanne

dry
moderate plus to full body
moderate to moderate plus acidity
moderate plus to high abv %
phenolic bitterness

99

current menu item that would work with Hermitage blanc?

rissotto, brandied pears, toasted hazelnuts, and orange zest

100

what is cost?

abbreviation for primary fruit

C = citrus
O = orchard
S = stone
T = tropical

101

what are the 3 basic colors for white wines?

straw
yellow
gold

102

color of Condrieu?

yellow or pale gold
with moder plus concentration

103

intensity of aromas for Condrieu

high intensity

104

primary fruit aromas for Condrieu

citrus - ripe: mandarin orange, ruby red grapefruit
orchard - yellow / brown pear
stone - ripe and lush: apricot, peach, peach pit
tropical - mango and persimmon

105

floral aromas for Condrieu

honeysuckle
jasmine
orange blossom
rose

106

spice aromas for Condrieu

cinnamon
musk
candied citrus peel
anise
gingerbread

107

what are some malolactic fermentation aromas

creme fraiche
yogurt
butter

108

earth aromas for Condrieu

moderate to moderate plus minerality
stone
granite

109

oak aromas for Condrieu

none, neutral, low to moderate
can be as much as 30% new French oak

110

California Viognier

oily texture
sweetened cereal = fruit loops
high abv %
phenolic bitterness

111

color of Torrontes

yellow
hints of green
moderate plus concentration
can sometimes be water white

112

intensity of aromas, Torrontes

high intensity
white perfumed aromas

113

primary fruit aromas for Torrontes

citrus - ripe: orange, meyer lemon
orchard - pear , apple soda
stone - ripe: peach
tropical fruit - pineapple, guava, papaya
others - melon and green grape / muscat

114

floral aromas for Torrontes

highly floral
perfume
orange blossom
rose
jasmine
geraniums

115

unique aromas for Torrontes

hand lotion
soap
potpourri
light musk

116

earth aromas for Torrontes

low to moderate
dry stone

117

oak influence for Torrontes

none

118

structure for Torrontes

dry
moderate to moderate plus body
moderate to moderate plus acidity
moderate plus to high abv %
possible bitterness

119

fruit for red wines

red
blue
black
dried

120

fruit descriptor fruit SB / Semillon blend

green fig, dried green fruit, fig newton

121

color of Muscat

straw / yellow
moderate to moderate plus concentration

122

intensity of Muscat aromas

high
heady and perfumed

123

primary fruit aromas for Muscat

citrus - ripe: orange and tangerine
orchard - yellow pear
stone - ripe: yellow peach, apricot
tropical - pineapple mango
also can melon and grape aromas

124

floral aromas for Muscat

white, yellow, and red flowers
honeysuckle
rose
orange blossom
lilacs
elderflower

125

herbal aromas for Muscat

slight vegetal notes

126

spice aromas for Muscat

musk
potpourri
cinnamon
licorice

127

earth aromas for Muscat

moderate to moderate plus minerality
stony, button mushroom, dam cellar

128

oak aromas for Muscat

none
large neutral cask

129

structure of Muscat

dry
moderate body
moderate to moderate plus acidity
moderate plus abv %
bitterness

130

color of Gewurztraminer

yellow / gold
moderate plus to high concentration

131

intensity of Gewurztraminer aromas

high (heady)

132

primary fruit aromas for Gewurztraminer

citrus - orange marmalade, grapefruit pith
orchard - ripe pear
stone - ripe: peach jam, dried apricot
tropical - lychee, pineapple, tropical fruit punch

133

florals for Gewurztraminer

rose
floral, perfume

134

spice for Gewurztraminer

cinnamon
clove
gingerbread
musk
potpourri
exotic spices

135

other aromas of Gewurztraminer

honey
bergamot oil
face lotion
perfume hand soap

136

earth aromas of Gewurztraminer

moderate to moderate plus
stone
granite

137

oak aromas of Gewurztraminer

no oak, or neutral oak

138

structure of Gewurztraminer

dry to off dry
moderate plus to full body
moderate acidity
moderate plus to high abv %
phenolic bitterness

139

color of Albarino

pale straw
hints of green
moderate minus concentration
slight residual gas in youth

140

primary fruit aromas for albarino

citrus - ripe: orange, meyer lemon, ruby red grapefruit
orchard - green apple
stone - white peach, peach pit, apricot, nectarine
melon fruit as well

141

floral aromas for Albarino

white and yellow florals
citrus and apple blossoms

142

other aromas for Albarino

bubblegum
agave
slight beer yeast
leesy
saline

143

earth aromas for Albarino

moderate plus minerality
stone
granite

144

oak aromas for Albarino

None

145

structure of Albarino

dry
moderate body
moderate plus acidity
moderate abv %

146

color of Alsace Pinot Gris

yellow / pale gold
possible slight copper and pink tones
moderate to moderate plus concentration

147

intensity of aromas, Alsace Pinot Gris

moderate to moderate plus

148

primary fruit of Alsace Pinot Gris

citrus - candied citrus, meyer lemon, orange
orchard - baked apple, quince
stone - apricot and yellow peach
tropical - pineapple, banana peel

149

floral aromas for Alsace Pinot Gris

apple blossoms
honeysuckle

150

spice aromas for Alsace Pinot Gris

exotic spices
musk
cinnamon

151

botrytis aromas for Alsace Pinot Gris

honey
ginger

152

other aromas for Alsace Pinot Gris

beeswax
damp cellar
nutty
bitter almond

153

earth aromas for Alsace Pinot Gris

moderate to high minerality
mushroom
forest floor

154

oak aromas for Alsace Pinot Gris

large neutral casks

155

structure of Alsace Pinot Gris

dry to medium sweet
moderate plus body
moderate to moderate plus acidity
moderate plus abv %
phenolic bitterness

156

color of Pinot Grigio

pale straw
hints of green
possible slight copper and pink tones
moderate concentration

157

intensity of aromas for Pinot Grigio

moderate intensity

158

primary fruit aromas for Pinot Grigio

citrus - lemon
orchard - red and yellow apple
stone - creamy, white peach and nectarine
melon

159

floral aromas for Pinot Grigio

white and yellow flowers

160

herbal aromas for Pinot Grigio

watercress
arugula

161

other aromas for Pinot Grigio

peanut shell
lager yeast
stale beer

162

earth aromas for Pinot Grigio

Moderate to moderate plus minerality
stone
chalk
ashen notes
saline

163

oak aromas for Pinot Grigio

none

164

structure of Pinot Grigio

dry
moderate body
moderate plus acidity
moderate abv %
slight phenolic bitterness

165

color of Wachau Gruner Veltliner Federspiel

pale straw
hints of green
moderate minus concentration
can have slight residual gas in youth

166

intensity of aromas for Wachau Gruner Veltliner Federspiel

moderate to moderate plus intensity

167

primary fruit aromas of Wachau Gruner Veltlier Federspiel

CITRUS - grapefruit, lemon, lime
ORCHARD- green apple
STONE - under-ripe to ripe stone fruit: white peach, nectarine yellow cherry, green plum
Green melon

personal note - look for green plum, green melon, green apple, lime, combined with radish

168

floral aromas for Wachau Gruner Veltliner Federspiel

white flowers - can be very floral

169

spice aromas for Wachau Gruner Veltliner Federspiel

Radish
wasabi
white pepper
peppery green - watercress and arugula

170

green herbal notes for Wachau Gruner Veltliner Federspiel

sugar snap pea
crisp green vegetable
celery
tarragon
chive, chive blossom

171

will Wachau Gruner Federspiel have botrytis aromas

no, it is harvest too early for botrytis to develop, but Smaragd is harvest later and can have it

172

earth aromas for Wachau Gruner Federspiel

high minerality
stone
granite

173

other aromas common for Wachau Gruner Federspiel

leesy
smoke

174

oak aromas for Wachau Gruner Federspiel

none

175

structure of Wachau Gruner Federspiel

dry
moderate body
moderate plus acidity
moderate abv %

176

color of Wachau Gruner Smaragd

straw / yellow / gold
hints of green
moderate to moderate plus concentration

177

intensity of aromas for Wachau Gruner Smaragd

moderate plus

178

primary fruit aromas of Wachau Gruner Smaragd

CITRUS - grapefruit, lemon, lime, orange
ORCHARD - red and yellow apple
STONE - ripe / lush: peach, apricot, yellow cherry, white plum
TROPICAL - slight dried tropical fruit -pineapple

179

spice aromas of Wachau Gruner Smaragd

Radish
white pepper
lentils
wasabi

180

floral aromas of Wachau Gruner Smaragd

white flowers

181

green / herbal aromas of Wachau Gruner Smaragd

slight chive
tarragon
sage

182

Can Wachau Gruner Smaragd have oxidative aromas

yes
blanched almond
nut

183

Can Wachau Gruner Smaragd have botrytis notes

yes
slight ginger
honey
saffron

184

earth aromas for Wachau Gruner Smaragd

moderate to high minerality
stone
granite

185

other aromas for Wachau Gruner Smaragd

leesy
smoke

186

oak aromas for Wachau Gruner Smaragd

none
possible neutral large cask

187

structure of Wachau Gruner Smaragd

dry
moderate plus body
moderate plus acidity
moderate plus to high abv %
bitterness?

188

color of Melon de Bourgogne

watery to pale straw
hints of green
low to moderate concentration
slight residual gas in youth

189

intensity of aromas for Melon de Bourgogne

moderate minus to moderate

190

primary fruit aromas for Melon de Bourgogne

CITRUS - tart lemon and lime
ORCHARD - tart: green apple and green pear
STONE - under-ripe white peach and nectarine
no tropical fruit

191

floral aromas for Melon de Bourgogne

faint white flowers

192

herbal / root aromas for Melon de Bourgogne

dandelion greens
nettles
savory herbs
peppery greens
turnip / root vegetable

193

sur lie aromas for Melon de Bourgogne

leesy
yeast
sourdough
sour beer
slight cream

194

earth aromas for Melon de Bourgogne

high minerality
saline / brine
wet stones

195

oak aromas for Melon de Bourgogne

none

196

structure for Melon de Bourgogne

bone dry - to dry
moderate minus to moderate body
high acidity
moderate minus to moderate abv %

197

color of Mosel kabinett Riesling

watery white
hints of green
brilliant, highly reflective
low concentration

198

intensity of aromas for Mosel Riesling

high intensity

199

primary fruit aromas for Mosel Reisling

CITRUS - lemon, lime, grapefruit - zest
ORCHARD - green apple, bosc pear, quince
STONE - white peach, white plum, nectarine
blackcurrant

200

are there any off aromas for Mosel Riesling

can have sulphuric note in youth

201

floral aromas for Mosel Riesling

white flowers
jasmine
fruit tree blossom

202

other aromas for Mosel Riesling

slight smoke
candle wax
panna cotta / meringue
slight petrol

203

earth aromas for Mosel Riesling

high minerality
slate
crushed rock

204

oak aromas for Mosel Riesling

none

205

bottle age aromas for Mosel Riesling

honey
petrol
paraffin

206

structure for Mosel Riesling

off dry
light body
high acidity
low abv %

207

color for Rheingau Riesling

straw
hints of green and pale gold
moderate concentration
star bright

208

intensity of aromas for Rheingau Riesling

high intensity

209

primary fruit aromas for Rheingau Riesling

CITRUS - fresh / ripe: grapefruit, meyer lemon, orange
ORCHARD - ripe: yellow apple, pear, quince
STONE - nectarine, white peach, apricot, cherry
TROPICAL - melon

210

floral aromas for Rheingau Riesling

white flowers
wild flowers
honeysuckle
jasmine
fruit tree blossoms

211

botrytis aromas for Rheingau Riesling

ginger
honey
saffron

212

slight herbal or spice aromas for Rheingau Riesling

lemongrass

213

other aromas for Rheingau Riesling

slight smoke
candle wax
panna cotta / meringue
slight petrol

214

earth aromas for Rheingau Riesling

high minerality
granite
slate
crushed rock

215

oak aromas for Rheingau Riesling

none
possible large neutral cask

216

bottle age aromas for Rheingau Riesling

honey
petrol
paraffin
herbs: marjoram or spearmint

217

structure for Rheingau Riesling

off dry to medium sweet
moderate minus body
high acidity
moderate minus abv %

218

color for Alsace Riesling

yellow / gold
hints of green
moderate plus concentration

219

intenisty of aromas for Alsace Riesling

high intensity

220

primary fruit aromas for Alsace Riesling

CITRUS - lemon, citronella, grapefruit
ORCHARD - ripe / cooked: yellow apple, baked pear quince
STONE - yellow peach, stewed apricot
TROPICAL - pineapple, banana peel

221

floral aromas for Alsace Riesling

white flowers
honeysuckle
jasmine

222

botrytis aromas for Alsace Riesling

honey
saffron
ginger

223

spice aromas for Alsace Riesling

cardamom
anise
fennel

224

other aromas for Alsace Riesling

smoke
candle wax
slight petrol

225

earth aromas for Alsace Riesling

high mineral
stone
white mushroom

226

oak aromas for Alsace Riesling

none, or large neutral casks

227

bottle age aromas for Alsace Riesling

honey
petrol
paraffin
marzipan
browned toast

228

structure for Alsace Riesling

dry
moderate to moderate plus body
high acidity
moderate plus to high abv %

229

color of Australia Riesling

pale straw
hints of green
moderate concentration
sometimes southern hemisphere wines have extra concentration of color

230

primary fruit aromas for Australia Riesling

CITRUS - ripe: lime, lime candy, lemon
ORCHARD - tart green apple
STONE - white peach, white nectarine
TROPICAL - passion fruit guava

231

floral aromas for Australia Riesling

white flowers
purple flowers
linden
lime blossom
rose

232

other aromas for Australia Riesling

kerosene
petrol
margarita salt

233

earth aromas for Australia Riesling

moderate plus minerality
slate
steely

234

structure for Australia Riesling

dry
moderate to moderate plus body
high acidity
moderate to moderate plus abv %

235

color of Vouvray - Chenin Blanc

pale straw or straw
hints of green
moderate concentration

236

intensity of Vouvray aromas

moderate to moderate plus

237

primary fruit aromas for Vouvray

CITRUS - tangerine, orange, lemon
ORCHARD - green, golden, oxidized apple, quince, yellow pear
STONE - none
TROPICAL - demi sec may reveal melon and tropical fruit notes

238

off aromas for Vouvray

sulphuric note in youth
oxidative notes - bruised apple, bitter nut, almond
cheese rind, soft cheese

239

floral aromas of Vouvray

orange blossom
jasmine
honeysuckle

240

herbal aromas of Vouvray

chamomile
herbal tea
medicinal notes
dandelion greens
wasabi
savory herbs
tree bark

241

botrytis

possible
honey - especially with bottle age
ginger
marmalade

242

other aromas of Vouvray

wet wool
lanolin

243

earth aromas of Vouvray

moderate plus to high minerality
damp straw
limestone / tuffeau
wet stones
white mushroom

244

oak for Vouvray

none or neutral casks

245

structure of Vouvray

dry to off dry (dry examples typically have slight rs
moderate body
high acidity
moderate minus to moderate abv %

246

color of Savenierres

pale yellow hints of gold
moderate plus concentration

247

primary fruit aromas for Savenierres

CITRUS - tangerine, bergamot, lemon
ORCHARD - golden ox apple, quince, yellow pear
STONE - dried apricot
TROPICAL - none

248

oxidative aromas for Savenierres

yes
bruised or rotten apple
cider
bitter nut
almond
marzipan
pistachio
cheese rind
savenierres is more oxidative than vouvry

249

floral aromas of savenierres

honeysuckle
jasmine
white flowers

250

earth aromas of savenierres

chamomile / herbal tea
medicinal notes
dandelion greens
wasabi
savory herbs
tree bark

251

botrytis in savenierres

yes, possible
honey, especially with bottle age
saffron
ginger
marmalade

252

other aromas of savenierres

yes,
wet wool, lanolin

253

earth aromas of savenierres

moderate plus to high minerality
damp straw
schist
wet stones
white mushroom

254

oak aromas for savenierres

none or neutral casks

255

structure of savenierres

dry
moderate plus to full body
high levels of extract
high acidity
moderate plus to high abv %

256

color of Chablis / chardonnay

pale straw to straw
hints of green
moderate concentration

257

intensity of aromas for Chablis

moderate intensity

258

primary fruit aromas of Chablis

CITRUS - lemon
ORCHARD - green/ yellow apple, pear, quince
STONE - white peach, yellow cherry
TROPICAL - melon

259

off aromas of Chablis

sulphur in youth
flint
burnt match
slight cabbage

260

oxidative aromas for Chablis?

yes, especially if neutral barrels are employed
hazelnut
almond
cheese rind

261

floral aromas for Chablis

faint white flowers
apple blossoms
hawthorne
acacia

262

earth aromas for Chablis

high minerality
stone
chalk
saline / sea spray - think low tide - smells cold
oyster shell
button mushroom

263

oak for Chablis

none or neutral

264

structure of Chablis

bone dry to dry
moderate to moderate plus body
moderate plus to high acid
moderate to moderate plus abv %

265

color of beaune chardonnay

straw / yellow / pale gold
moderate to moderate plus concentration

266

intensity of aromas beaune chardonnay

moderate to moderate plus intensity

267

primary fruit aromas for beaune chardonnay

CITRUS - lemon
ORCHARD - green / yellow apple, pear, quince
STONE - white peach, yellow cherry
TROPICAL - melon

268

oxidative aromas for beaune chardonnay

almond
hazelnut
cheese rind

269

malolactic aromas for beaune chardonnay

slight butter
creme fraiche
sour cream

270

floral aromas for beaune chardonnay

white flowers
acacia
hawthorne
honeysuckle
apple blossom

271

other aromas for beaune chardonnay

slight spice
slight savory herb - sage

272

earth aromas for beaune chardonnay

moderate to high minerality
limestone
button mushroom

273

oak aromas for beaune chardonnay

low to high use of new French oak
toffee
salted caramel
butterscotch
sweet baking spice
cinnamon
toast
smoke

274

bottle age aromas for beaune chardonnay

truffle
honey
nut

275

structure for beaune chardonnay

dry
moderate to full body
moderate plus to high acidity
moderaet to modreate plus abv %

276

color of California chardonnay

yellow / pale gold
moderate plus concentration

277

intensity of aromas for California chardonnay

moderate to moderate plus

278

primary fruit aromas for California chardonnay

CITRUS - ripe: meyer lemon
ORCHARD - yellow apple, baked apple
STONE - ripe: apricot, peach, peach pit
TROPICAL - ripe pineapple, mango, melon

279

oxidative notes for California chardonnay

hazelnut
almond

280

malolactic aromas for California chardonnay

butter
yogurt
creme fraiche
sour cream

281

other aromas for California chardonnay

sweet
canned corn

282

earth aromas for California chardonnay

low minerality
slight limestone

283

oak aromas for California chardonnay

moderate to high use of new French oak
toffee
salted caramel
butterscotch
sweet baking spices
vanilla
pie crust
toast

284

structure of California chardonnay

dry (may have slight rs)
moderate plus to full body
moderate acidity
moderate plus to high abv %

285

color of sancerre

pale straw
hints of green
moderate concentration

286

intensity of aromas for sancerre

moderate to moderate plus

287

primary fruit aromas for sancerre

CITRUS - tart: grapefruit, lemon, lime
ORCHARD - tart: green apple, green pear
STONE - under ripe white peach
TROPICAL - slight kiwi, passionfruit
gooseberry
cucumber

288

floral aromas for sancerre

faint white flowers
citrus blossoms

289

herbal aromas for sancerre

cut grass
green bell pepper
black currant bud
box tree
nettles
tarragon

290

earth aromas for sancerre

high minerality
wet stones
chalk
crushed rocks

291

oak aromas for sancerre

none
neutral casks

292

structure of sancerre

dry
moderate body
high acidity
moderate to moderate plus abv %

293

color of Marlborough NZ SB

pales straw
hints of green
moderate concentration

294

intensity of aromas for Marlborough NZ SB

high

295

primary fruit aromas for Marlborough NZ SB

CITRUS - grapefruit, lemon, lime
ORCHARD - not much
STONE - not much
TROPICAL - melon, gooseberry, passion fruit, guava, pineapple

296

florals for Marlborough NZ SB

faint white florals
citrus blossoms

297

herbal aromas for Marlborough NZ SB

pyrazine
cut grass
asparagus
canned pea
green bell pepper
jalapeno, rhubarb

298

earth aromas for Marlborough NZ SB

low to moderate
wet sand
chalk

299

oak aromas for Marlborough NZ SB

none

300

structure for Marlborough NZ SB

dry
moderate body
high acidity
moderate to moderate abv %

301

color of California Sauvignon Blanc

straw
hints of green
moderate concentration

302

intensity of aromas for California Sauvignon Blanc

moderate plus intensity
less pronounced varietal character

303

primary fruit aromas for California Sauvignon Blanc

CITRUS - ripe: ruby red grapefruit, lemon, mandarin orange
ORCHARD - red apple
STONE - white peach, nectarine
TROPICAL - passion fruit, guava, kiwi, melon

304

floral aromas for California Sauvignon Blanc

white florals
citrus blossom
honeysuckle - RN

305

herbal / green aromas for California Sauvignon Blanc

cut grass
celery
tarragon
lemon grass

306

earth aromas for California Sauvignon Blanc

low to moderate minerality
river rock

307

oak aromas for California Sauvignon Blanc

now or low to moderate use of new French oak
Napa examples with new barrique fermentation and aging may take on aromas and flavors similar to Graves Bordeaux Blanc

308

structure of California Sauvignon Blanc

dry
moderate plus body
moderate plus to high acidity
moderate plus to high abv %

309

color of Graves Bordeaux Blanc

yellow / pale gold
hints of green
moderate plus concentration of color

310

intensity aromas Graves Bordeaux Blanc

moderate inensity

311

primary fruit aromas for Graves Bordeaux Blanc

CITRUS - grapefruit, lemon
ORCHARD - green and yellow apple, green fig
STONE - nectarine, peach, apricot
TROPICAL - pineapple, passionfruit, melon

312

floral aromas for Graves Bordeaux Blanc

honeysuckle
faint white flowers

313

herbal aromas for Graves Bordeaux Blanc

cut grass
celery
celery sees

314

earth aromas for Graves Bordeaux Blanc

gravel
wet rocks

315

other aromas for Graves Bordeaux Blanc

bees wax
lanolin
cream soda
sunflower seed

316

oak aromas for Graves Bordeaux Blanc

moderate to high - 50 % use of new French oak
vanilla
toast

317

structure of Graves Bordeaux Blanc

dry
moderate to moderate plus body
moderate plus to high acidity
moderate to moderate plus abv %

318

color of Hunter Semillon

straw
hints of green
medium minus concentration

319

intensity of aromas for Hunter Semillon

moderate plus

320

primary fruit aromas for Hunter Semillon

CITRUS - lemon, lemon marmalade
ORCHARD - tart, green apple, green fig
STONE - none
TROPICAL - none

321

floral aromas for Hunter Semillon

honeysuckle
lemon blossom

322

herbal aromas for Hunter Semillon

slight grassy
savory herb
hay

323

bottle age aromas for Hunter Semillon

honey
brown toast
creme brulee
umami

324

Other aromas for Hunter Semillon

waxy
candle wax
Panna cotta

325

earth aromas for Hunter Semillon

strong
stone

326

oak aromas for Hunter Semillon

none

327

structure for Hunter Semillon

dry
moderate minus body
high acidity
moderate minus to moderate abv %

328

What does Sauternes taste like

stewed cooked tree fruit - apple and quince
orange, tangerine, lemon marmalade
ripe melon
pineapple
honeysuckle, orange blossom
cinnamon, nutmeg, clove, mace, vanilla pod
sweet hay, dried grass, savory herb
honey, gingerbread, saffron, candied pineapple, dried apricot
hazelnut, blanched nuts, almond
mushroom, truffle
toast, smoke, caramel, creme brulee

329

how much sugar does Sauternes have?

typically 85 - 150 grams

330

color of Medoc Cabernet based blend

dark ruby, purple
moderate plus concentration

331

intensity of aromas for Medoc Cabernet based blend

moderate plus

332

primary fruit aromas for Medoc Cabernet based blend

black fruit: blackcurrant, cassis, blackberry, black cherry
slight red fruit, and plum

333

herbal / green aromas for Medoc Cabernet based blend

sage
green bell pepper
mint
tobacco
dried savory herbs

334

spice aromas for Medoc Cabernet based blend

green peppercorn
anise
clove

335

other aromas for Medoc Cabernet based blend

leather
pencil shavings
cedar
iodine
medicinal
game
cigar box

336

earth aromas for Medoc Cabernet based blend

moderate plus to high minerality
graphite
gravel
iron
damp soils
mushroom

337

oak aromas for Medoc Cabernet based blend

moderate plus to high use of new French oak
baking spices
clove
smoke
coffee
vanilla
roasted nut
cedar

338

structure for Medoc Cabernet based blend

dry
moderate to moderate plus body
moderate plus to high tannin
moderate plus acidity
moderate to moderate plus abv %

339

color of Napa Cabernet

dark purple
high concentration

340

intensity of aromas for Napa Cabernet

moderate plus intensity

341

primary fruit aromas for Napa Cabernet

Lush red fruit: sweet cherry, raspberry
Ripe lush black fruit: blackcurrant, cassis, blackberry, black cherry
Boysenberry, blueberry

342

floral aromas for Napa Cabernet

purple flowers
violets

343

herbal aromas for Napa Cabernet - cooler vintages

sage
mint
green bell pepper
tobacco
eucalyptus

344

spice (sweet) aromas for Napa Cabernet

anise
cocoa
cinnamon
clove
all spice
nutmeg

345

other aromas of Napa Cabernet

cedar
pencil shaving
sweet leather
cigar box

346

earth aromas for Napa Cabernet

low to moderate plus minerality
volcanic, ashen
gravel
loamy

347

oak aromas for Napa Cabernet

moderate plus to high use of new French oak
all spice
nutmeg
clove
smoke
toast
coffee
vanilla
roasted nut
cocoa
cedar

348

structure of Napa Cabernet

dry - ripe attack
full body
moderate plus to high tannin
moderate acidity
moderate plus to high abv %

349

how is Coonawarra Cabernet different?

prune
intense green character: eucalyptus, mint, green bell pepper, sage
look for fruity acidity - acidulation

350

what aroma does Chilean Cabernet display that other Cabernet typically does not?

green and black olive
it typically has lower abv % , and lower acidity

351

color of chinon

dark ruby
moderate to moderate concentration
pink / purple rim variation in youth

352

intensity of aromas for chinon

moderate plus intensity

353

primary fruit aromas for chinon

bright red fruit: raspberry, cranberry, red cherry, cherry pit
tart black fruit: black cherry, black currant, blackberry
under ripe fruits

354

what unique winemaking aromas can chinon have

carbonic maceration
stem inclusion

355

floral aromas for chinon

violets
lilacs
white and red flowers

356

herbal / green / pyrazine aromas for chinon

green bell pepper
serrano pepper
celery seed
grass
sage
tobacco

357

other aromas for chinon

leather
cedar
cigar box

358

earth aromas for chinon

high minerality
graphite
pencil lead
gravel dust

359

oak aromas for chinon

neutral
some top cuvees will include new oak

360

structure for chinon

bone dry to dry
moderate plus body
moderate plus tannin
moderate plus acidity
moderate to moderate plus abv %

361

color of Corvina, Amarone della Valpolicella

ruby, dark ruby
garnet rim variation
moderate plus concentration
high viscosity

362

intensity of aromas for Corvina, Amarone della Valpolicella

high intensity

363

Primary fruit aromas for Corvina, Amarone della Valpolicella

ripe / syrupy red fruit: red cherry, red plum, raspberry
black cherry
blackberry
prune
raisin
dried cherry

364

flaws for Corvina, Amarone della Valpolicella

volitile acidity
oxidation
both are likely

365

floral aromas for Cornvina, Amarone della Valpolicella

highly floral
roses
dried florals

366

spice aromas for Corvina, Amarone della Valpolicella

licorice
cinnamon

367

other aromas for Corvina, Amarone della Valpolicella

honey
chocolate
resin
tar
leather
bitter almond
smoke
tobacco ash
game

368

earth aromas for Corvina, Amarone della Valpolicella

moderate to high minerality

369

oak aromas for Corvina

large neutral casks
modern producers may incorporate new barrels

370

structure of Corvina

dry to off dry (max 12 g/l rs)
full body
moderate plus acidity
moderate plus tannin
high abv %

371

Color of South Africa Pinotage

dark ruby
with purple tones
moderate plus concentration
stained tears

372

intensity of aromas for Pinotage

moderate plus intesity

373

primary fruit aromas for Pinotage

roasted / charred black and red fruit
blackberry
blackcherry
slight fig

374

Major clue for Pinotage

Brettanomyces
saddle leather
clove
smoke
band aid

375

other aromas for Pinotage

sanguine
fresh paint
rubber or burnt rubber
barbeque

376

oak aromas for Pinotage

moderate to high use of new oak

377

structure of Pinotage

dry
moderate plus body
moderate tannin
moderate plus acidity
moderate plus abv %

378

color of Right Bank Merlot

ruby color with garnet tones
moderate to moderate plus concentration

379

intensity of aromas for Right Bank Merlot

moderate plus intensity

380

primary fruit aromas for Right bank Merlot

red fruit: strawberry, raspberry, red cherry
blue fruit: plum and blueberry
black fruit: blackberry and blackcherry
fig and fruitcake

381

floral aromas for Right Bank Merlot

purple flowers
violets

382

herbal aromas for Right Bank Merlot

mint
bay leaf
fern
tobacco

383

spice aromas for Right Bank Merlot

licorice
anise
christmas spice

384

earth aromas for Right Bank Merlot

moderate plus to moderate minerality
clay
mushroom
truffle

385

oak aromas for Right Bank Merlot

moderate plus to high use of new French oak
chocolate
coffee
cinnamon
vanilla

386

structure of Right Bank Merlot

dry
moderate to moderate plus body
moderate to moderate plus acidity
moderate to moderate plus tannin
moderate plus abv %

387

color of northern Rhone Syrah

ruby / purple
moderate plus to high concentration

388

intensity of aromas for northern Rhone Syrah

moderate plus intensity

389

primary fruit aromas for northern Rhone Syrah

red fruit: raspberry
blue fruit: blueberry, and boysenberry
black fruit: blackberry, black cherry, black plum
condition of fruit is tart / ripe

390

color of Aussie Shiraz

opaque
dark purple color
high conentration
deeply stained tears

391

intensity of aromas for Shiraz

high intensity

392

primary fruit aromas for Aussie Shriaz

Raspberry liqueur, mulberry
lush blue fruit: blueberry, and plum
ripe lush black fruit: blackberry and cassis
dried fruit: fig, raisin, and date

393

floral aromas for Aussie Shiraz

purple and red flowers
lavender - less prominent than in Northern Rhone examples

394

herbal / green aromas for Aussie Shiraz

Eucalyptus
mint / menthol
herbs de provence
rosemary

395

spice aromas for Aussie Shiraz

black pepper
dried savory spices
licorice
christmas spice / fruitcake

396

other aromas for Aussie Shiraz

bitter chocolate
smoke
grilled meat

397

earth aromas for Aussie Shiraz

low to moderate minerality
loam / clay

398

oak aromas for Aussie Shiraz

low to high use of new American oak or French oak
vanilla
coconut
dill
chocolate
mocha
baking spice
cumin
curry / fenugreek
maple

399

structure of Aussie Shiraz

dry - often with 2 - 4 ounces of rs
full body
moderate to moderate plus acidity
moderate to moderate plus tannin
high abv %

400

key argument for Aussie Shiraz

high concentration of color - opaque
ripe lush fruit
eucalyptus or mint
smoke or game
high abv %

401

color for Chianti Classico

light ruby
garnet tones / slight
moderate minus to moderate concentration
blending grapes can make color darker

402

color for Burnello di Montalcino

dark ruby
garnet rim
moderate plus concentration

403

primary fruit for Sangiovese

tart red fruit: sour cherry, raspberry, cranberry, red currant
red apple
black cherry
mulberry
tomato

404

floral aromas for Sangiovese

dried flowers
potpourri

405

herbal green aromas for Sangiovese

fennel
roasted savory herbs
thyme
rosemary
marjoram
camphor
bitter root

406

spice aromas for Sangiovese

clove
smoke (brettanomyces indicators)
coffee
oak spices

407

other aromas of Sangiovese

sanguine
blood
balsamic
animal
leather
tar

408

earth aromas of Sangiovese

moderate to high minerality
clay
crushed rock
baked earth

409

structure for Sangiovese / Chianti Classico

bone dry to dry
moderate to moderate plus body
moderate plus to high tannin
moderate plus to high acidity
moderate to high abv %

410

structure for Sangiovese / Brunello di Montalcino

bone dry to dry
full body
high tannin
high acidity
moderate plus to high abv %

411

oak regime for Sangiovese

Chianti = none, or large neutral casks
Chianti Classico = may see oak barrels
Brunello = large neutral casks with possible mixed use of French oak barriques

412

color of Gamay

bright ruby
purple tones
low to moderate plus concentration
possible residual gas from carbonic maceration

413

intensity of aromas Gamay

moderate plus to high

414

primary fruit aromas for Gamay

tart red fruits: strawberry, red cherry, raspberry, cranberry, red currant
Watermelon
Carbonic Maceration aromas = pear drop, banana, bubblegum, cotton candy, lifted red fruit and floral aromatics

415

floral aromas of Gamay

violets
lilacs
peonies

416

other aromas for Gamay

slight black pepper
dry savory herbs

417

earth aromas of Gamay

moderate to high minerality
wet granite
stone
crushed rock

418

oak aromas for Gamay

none

419

structure of Gamay

dry
moderate minus to moderate body
moderate plus to high acidity
low to moderate minus tannin
moderate to moderate plus abv %

420

color of Pinot Noir - Burgundy

light ruby / ruby
moderate minus to moderate concentration

421

intensity of aromas Pinot Noir - Burgundy

moderate plus intensity

422

primary fruit aromas for Pinot Noir - Burgundy

tart to just ripe red fruit: red cherry, raspberry, cranberry, wild strawberry
Possible black cherry, beet, beetroot, tomato

423

floral aromas for Pinot Noir - Burgundy

purple and red flowers
violets
lilacs
potpourri

424

herbal / vegetal aromas for Pinot Noir - Burgundy

tea leaf
dried herbs
fennel
rhubarb
sweet squash

425

spice aromas for Pinot Noir - Burgundy

red licorice
anise
clove

426

other aromas of Pinot Noir - Burgundy

game
leather

427

earth aromas of Pinot Noir - Burgundy

moderate to high minerality
flouride
limestone
mushroom
forest floor
damp leaves

428

oak aromas for Pinot Noir - Burgundy

neutral to high use of new French oak
toast
vanilla bean
smoke
baking spice
cinnamon
roasted nut
caramel

429

structure of Pinot Noir - Burgundy

dry
moderate to moderate plus body
moderate plus acidity
moderate minus to moderate plus tannin
moderate to moderate plus abv %

430

color of Pinot Noir - Russian River Valley

high clarity
bright ruby color
moderate concentration

431

intensity of aromas for Pinot Noir - RRV

moderate plus intensity

432

primary fruit for Pinot Noir - RRV

ripe / lush red fruit: strawberry jam, cherry, raspberry
ripe black cherry, plum, prune

433

floral aromas for Pinot Noir RRV

purple and red flowers
Potpourri

434

herbal aromas for Pinot Noir RRV

tea leaf
citrus zest
peel

435

spice of Pinot Noir RRV

red licorice
clove
cinnamon

436

other aromas of Pinot Noir RRV

cola and cola nut

437

earth aromas of Pinot Noir RRV

moderate minerality

438

oak aromas of Pinot Noir RRV

moderate plus to high use of new French Oak
1/3 new
toast
vanilla bean
smoke
baking spices
clove
cinnamon
roasted nut
caramel

439

structure of Pinot Noir RRV

dry with ripe attack
moderate plus body
moderate plus acidity
moderate minus to moderate tannin
moderate plus to high abv %

440

color of Oregon Pinot Noir

Ruby
moderate concentration

441

aromatic intensity of Oregon Pinot Noir

Moderate plus intensity

442

primary fruit aromas for Oregon Pinot Noir

ripe lush red fruit: strawberry, cherry, raspberry
Ripe black cherry
blueberry

443

floral aromas for Oregon Pinot Noir

purple and red flowers
potpourri

444

herbal aromas for Oregon Pinot Noir

tea leaf
citrus zest / peel
tomato leaf

445

earth aromas for Oregon Pinot Noir

moderate plus minerality
wet leaves
compost
mushroom
forest floor

446

spice aromas for Oregon Pinot Noir

red licorice
oak spices

447

oak aromas for Oregon Pinot Noir

moderate to high use of new French Oak
vanilla
baking spices
coffee
chocolate
caramel

448

structure for Oregon Pinot Noir

dry - with ripe attack
moderate plus body
moderate plus acidity
moderate minus to moderate tannin
moderate plus to high abv %

449

color of zinfandel

ruby / dark ruby
moderate to moderate plus concentration
color and concentration are highly affected by blending other grapes

450

intensity of aromas for zinfandel

moderate plus to high intensity

451

primary fruit aromas for zinfandel

jammy / brambly berry fruit
raspberry
black cherry
cherry compote
blackberry
cassis
blueberry
cranberry jam
raisin
fig
peach yogurt
apricot

452

non fruit aromas for zinfandel

black pepper
briar
slight potting soils
soil turned earth

453

oak aromas for zinfandel

neutral to moderate use of new American Oak, French Oak, or mixed barrels
vanilla
sawdust
coconut
chocolate
mocha
coffee
caramel
dillweed
cinnamon

454

structure of zinfandel

dry - often with perceptible rs
full body
moderate to moderate plus tannin
moderate to moderate plus acidity
high abv %