Block 2 Lecture 1 -- Menstrual Cycle Flashcards Preview

PHS 933 > Block 2 Lecture 1 -- Menstrual Cycle > Flashcards

Flashcards in Block 2 Lecture 1 -- Menstrual Cycle Deck (55):
1

How long does menses last?

3-5 days (2-7 is normal)

2

When is normal onset of menses?

12 yo

3

What is the other name for aromatase?

CYP19

4

What causes the LH surge?

estradiol ≥ 200 pg/mL x 48 hours

5

When does the LH surge occur relative to ovulation?

10-16 hours prior

6

What is the best predictor of ovulation?

LH surge

7

When is [progesterone] greater than [estrogen]?

ONLY during luteal phase of menstrual cycle

8

What is the time period over which the CL degenerates?

9-11 days if no fertilization

9

When is hCG detectable?

6-8 days post-fertilization

10

When does the luteal-placental shift occur?

12 weeks post-fertilization

11

What hormones are produced by the placenta?

progesterone and estriol

12

When is hCG produced?

immediately following blastocyst implantation in the endometrium

13

Describe the structures of FSH and LH.

-- 36kDa heteromeric glycoproteins
-- secreted by AP
-- common alpha, unique beta subunits

14

What is the half-life of FSH?

3-4 h

15

What is the half-life of LH?

20 minutes

16

What is the E# designation for estrone?

E1

17

What is the E# designation for estradiol?

E2

18

What is the E# designation for estriol?

E3

19

What is E1

estrone

20

What is E2

estradiol

21

What is E3

estriol

22

When is E1 most abundant?

estrone most abundant...
-- post menopause

23

Where is E1 primarily produced

estrone produced ...
-- primarily from fat

24

When is E2 most abundant?

estradiol most abundant...
-- in repro women

25

When is E3 most abundant?

estriol most abundant...
-- during pregnancy (and only detectable during pregnancy)

26

Where is E2 produced?

ovaries

27

Where is E3 produced?

in placenta from E2 or E1, or from circulating DHEA

28

What is the most abundant steroid in circulation?

DHEA

29

What are the non-menstrual effects of estrogens?

1) secondary sex characteristics
2) increased bone formation
3) improved lipids
4) opposition of aldosterone
5) positive mood
6) neuroprotection
7) softer skin
8) increased liver protein synthesis

30

What is the concentration of progesterone in the follicular phase?

less than 2 ng/mL

31

What is the concentration of progesterone in the luteal phase?

5+ ng/mL (normally 10-15)

32

What is the concentration of progesterone in pregnancy?

100-200 ng/mL

33

What are the progestogens?

1) progesterone
2) 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone

34

Where is progesterone formed?

corpus luteum
adrenals

35

Where is 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone formed?

adrenals

36

What is the principle circulating progestogen?

progesterone

37

What is the concnetration of progesterone in the luteal phase?

10-15 ng/mL

38

What is the concentration of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in the luteal phase? 3rd trimester?

1-5 mg/mL
30 ng/mL

39

When is 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone concentration elevated?

pregnancy
CAH

40

Describe the structure of inhibin

peptide dimer

41

What is the function of hCG?

maintain CL
maintain progesterone production

42

What are the functions of progesterone?

1) suppress uterine contractility, maternal immune response to fetus, inhibit lactation, promote preparation of lactation
2) sperm attractant via activating Ca channels
3) prepares endometrium for implant
4) forms thick cervical mucous to inhibit sperm movement
5) used by embryo to make glucocorticoids and sex steroids

43

Where are the targets of progesterone?

1) uterus
2) breast
3) CNS -- neuromodulator, neuroprotector

44

What is the function of FSH?

-- stimulate granulosa cells to produce estrogen by upregulating aromatase
-- stimulate inhibin production
-- in males: spermatogenesis

45

How long is menses?

21-40 days; (u=28)

46

Which phase of the cycle is most likely to vary in length?

follicular, esp. after menarche and before menopause

47

What is non-pharm tx for dysmenorrhea?

-- topical heat up to 12h
-- exercise
-- low-fat diet

48

When is the usual onset of PMS?

1-2 weeks prior to menses

49

What is non-pharm tx for PMS?

1) decrease caffeine, EtOH, sugar, salt
2) increase exercise
3) vitamin b6 (50-100 mg/day) + Calcium

50

What is the incidence of PMS?

75%, most common between 25-35 yo

51

What are the symptoms of dysmenorrhea?

-- crampy pelvic pain 1-3 days before menses
+/- menorrhagia
+/- nausea/vomiting
+/- headache

52

What percentage of women experience recurrent dysmenorrhea?

25%

53

What are the causes of secondary dysmenorrhea? Most common?

most common = endometriosis
others: uterine polyps, pelvic infections, cervical stenosis

54

What percentage of PMS patients develop PMDD?

3-8%

55

What is the primary target of estrogens?

ER-alpha
-- primarily ovary, uterus, breast