In order to do functional work, blood must do what?
Be kept ceaselessly moving
How does blood act as a transportation fluid (general)?
Blood BRINGS: nutrients, oxygen, water, etc.; blood REMOVES: CO2, waste/toxins, heat, water, etc.
How is erythropoesis in bone marrow controlled?
The hormone erythropoietin from the kidneys
What is the normal appearance of blood?
Darker when deoxygenated, lighter when oxygenated
What type of secondary polycythemia conditional to living in high elevation?
Physiologic (high altitude) polycythemia
What is the normal pH of blood?
~ pH 7.4
What are some of the adverse effects of polycythemia?
Increased RBC's increases the viscosity of blood, putting increased work load on heart
At what temperature is blood normally maintained?
37 C or 98.6 F
How might anemia put strain on the heart?
Decreased RBC's decreases
How much more viscous is blood than water?
3-5X more viscous
What are some of the non-regulatory factors required for RBC synthesis?
Iron and amino acids (hemoglobin synth.), Vit B12 and folic acid (DNA synthesis in erythropoiesis)
How much blood is normally found in the circulatory system?
~ 5 liters
What is a malabsorption of Vit B12 that would slow erythropoiesis, producing fragile macrocytes (large RBCs)
What percent of blood is plasma, WBC's/platelets, and RBC's?
Plasma ~ 55%, WBC's ~ tiny %, RBC's ~ 45%
What is the normal lifespan of an RBC?
What is another name for the WBC/platelet layer of centrifuged blood?
The "Buffy Coat"
What is the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)?
Taking a sample of blood and letting the RBC's settle out on their own (no centrifuging)
What might an altered WBC count indicate?
The presence of infectious agents (usually elevates the WBC count)
What might an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate indicate?
During infection, arthritis, and other inflammatory diseases, the ESR would be elevated. Reacting blood tends to clump and fall out of solution.
What is the name of the inferior layer of centrifuged blood and what is it called?
This layer is composed of erythrocytes (RBC's) and is known as the HEMATOCRIT
What fraction of blood does plasma represent?
What is a low hematocrit indicate?
What are some common functions of plasma proteins?
Plasma colloidal osmotic pressure (greatest), carriers, defense, clotting/coagulation, blood viscosoty (small).
What are the two general causes of anemia?
Loss of blood or inadequate production
What are the three classifications of plasma proteins?
Albumin (smallest, greatest %), globulin (larger, less common), fibrinogen (largest, smallest %)
An RBC count < 4 million/mm^3 is known as ______.
What condition is marked by a lack of plasma proteins (particularly albumin)?
An RBC count > 6 million/mm^3 is known as ________.
What are some of the complications of hypoproteinemia; when might they be seen?
Seen during starvation, liver disease, nephrosis, intestinal malabsorption; lack of plasma proteins decreases osmotic pressure, leading to adema.
What are three typical causes for polycythemia?
disease, dehydration, or living in high altitudes