Blood and Hematopoiesis Flashcards Preview

Elements of Medicine > Blood and Hematopoiesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood and Hematopoiesis Deck (27):
1

What are the functions of blood?

Movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide, WBCs to infection, moves nutrients, picks up byproducts, carries platelets for clotting, heat distribution, hormones to site of action

2

The two main components of blood are _____, which is mostly composed of water and solutes, and ____ like WBCs, RBCs, and platelets.

plasma, cells

3

With an anticoagulant, blood separates into what three layers.

plasma, buffy coat, and RBCs

4

What is in the buffy coat?

WBCs and platelets

5

Without an anticoagulant, what two layers does the blood separate into?

Serum (plasma without ANY clotting factors. Instead, serum has drugs, hormones, water, etc.) and the bottom layer is composed of RBCs, WBCs, and clotting factors

6

Why are blood smears important?

Gives an idea of quality and quantity of a blood sample (e.g. what do WBCs look like, high/low platelet count, etc)

7

What is the purpose of erythrocyte biconcavity?

increased surface area for better gas circulation

8

What is erythrocyte membrane composition and character?

Very flexible to fit in tight capillaries. Integral proteins: ion channels and antigen blood type. Peripheral proteins: spectrin.

9

What disease is associated with spectrin defects?

hereditary spherocytosis

10

Erythrocytes

120 day life
Biconcave increases surface area
No nuclei
With Hb
Flexible

11

Do RBCs have nuclei?

No, we want to make more room for Hb. Immature forms have nucleus and lose it as they mature.

12

Myeloid Line

Differentiate into neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes (macrophages)
Nuclear/ cytoplasmic granule qualities

13

Lymphoid Line

Differentiate into B, T lymphocytes or Natural killer cells

14

Neutrophils

Granulocyte from myeloid lineage
Contains lysozyme and myeloperoxidase which is toxic to bacteria
6-8 hrs blood, days tissue
Can survive anaerobically
Pus (peroxide kills bacteria)
Key features: Nucleus segmented into 3-5 and smooth granules

15

Eosinophil

Granylocyte from myeloid lineage
Classic in allergies/ parasite infection
Few hrs blood, days tissue
Key Features: 1 bilobed nucleus, large red/ pink stain, large rough granules

16

Basophil

Granulocyte from myeloid lineage, minor component in peripheral blood
Assists with extreme response anaphylaxis because histamine, heparin
Key features: bilobed nucleus with large dark blue stain, difficult to see nucleus b/c of granules

17

Monocytes

Agranular phagocytic leukocyte that can become a macrophage.
Hours in circulation, differentiate in tissue
Key features: kidney shaped/ oval nucleus, pale blue cytoplasm w/ vacuoles

18

Platelets

Cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes (that hang out on sinusoids) involved in clotting, full of granules
Key features: coagulate and look white, clumped in fiber

19

What is hematopoiesis dependent on? (3)

Growth factors, cytokines, and microenvironment

20

T/F. Myeloid and lymphoid progenitors form and differentiate in the bone marrow.

F.
Explanation: Myeloid stays in bone marrow. Lymphoid progenitors migrate to thymus/spleen/ lymph nodes

21

Red bone marrow is ____ and yellow bone marrow is ____.

active, inactive

22

Granulopoiesis

Granulocyte production
Takes 2 weeks
Requires GCSF growth factor
Nucleus shrinks and increase in granules
Precursors look similar until myelocyte stage when granule characteristics define them

23

What is the order of cell differentiation?

Stem cells, progenitor cells, blast cells, mature cells

24

Erythropoiesis

RBC production
Takes 1 week
Req. Erythropoietin GF make in kidney
Goes from blue with large nucleus- red no nucleus

25

Neutrophil Compartments

Granylocytic and storage compartments
Circulating compartment- peripheral blood
Marginating compartment-accumulation on endothelial surface

26

Megakaryocyte

Large cell with lobulated nucleus
Undergoes endomitosis, replication without division, platelets are shedded membrane
GF is thrombopoietin

27

What are the sites of hematopoiesis from fetal to old age?

Liver and spleen early fetal months, shift to bone marrow until exclusively bone marrow postnatal