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Flashcards in Blood And Nutrition Deck (25)
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1

What is rickets?
What are the symptoms?
What is another name for it?

Vitamin D/ calcium deficiency in children.
Bone growth issues
Symptoms: lethargy and bowed legs
Osteomalacia

2

What is scurvy?
What are the symptoms?

Vitamin C deficiency often in elderly/ if poor diet.
Symptoms: lethargy, bleeding gums, teeth falling out, bruising easily.

3

Which medicines can be of use in sickle cell anaemia?

Hydroxycarbamide can reduce frequency of crises.
Folate supplement helps make new red blood cells.

4

What does G6PD deficiency mean?
Which drugs are involved?

The patient with the deficiency is susceptible to developing haemolytic anaemia in response to some drugs and flava beans.

Drugs are: dapsone, nitrofurantoin, quinolone (cipro), sulponamides (co-trimoxazole)

5

What is the MHRA warning associated with parenteral iron?

Risk of anaphylaxis.
Test doses not recommended.
Monitor for 30 mins after EACH injection

6

What is the oral dose of the different iron salts for anaemia prophylaxis and treatment?

Prophylaxis:
sulfate 200mg OD
fumarate 210mg OD
gluconate 600mg OD

Treatment:
sulfate 200mg TDS
fumarate 210mg TDS
gluconate 600mg TDS

7

What is megalobalistic anaemia?
How is it treated?

Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency
Treat with: hydroxocobalamin IM every 3 months
cynacobalamin OD

Folic acid can be given as an adjunct but not alone (can cause neuropathy)

8

What medicine can be given to treat iron poisoning?

Desferrioxamine

9

Which drug can be used for Neutropenia?

Filgrastim
NOTE: can cause pulmonary toxicity (STOP drug)

10

What are the causes of hypOkalaemia?

What are the symptoms?

How is it treated?

Range: 3.5-5.3

Remember: Dare insult betty's tough carpet:
duretics
insulin
B2 agonists
theophyline
cortcosteroids

Symptoms: arrhythmias
Treatment: SLOW supplementation. Causes Nausea and vommiting so poor compliance.
IV potassium fatal in overdose.

11

What are the causes of hypERkalaemia?

What are the symptoms?

How is it treated?

Range: 3.5-5.3

Remember: HADBEANS:
heparins, ACEIs/ARBs, digoxin, beta blockers, eplerenone, amiloride, NSAIDs, spironolactone

Symptoms: cardiac arrest
Treatment: oral calcium resonium, IV calcium gluconate (cardioprotection)
insulin, glucose salbutamol can also help.
sod bic to correct acidosis.

12

What causes hypOnatraemia?

What causes hypERnatraemia?

hypo: antidepressants, antipsychotics, diuretics, PPIs.

hyper: caused by volume depletion (e.g diabetes insidious) lithium, sod Bic, corticosteroids.

13

What are colloids and crystalloids?

colloids- plasma + substitutes. large molecules , stay in the blood for longer and smaller volumes are needed.

colloids- electrolytes.

14

How is hypERcalcaemia managed?

Bisphosphonates (keep calcium in bones)
calcitonin (salmon) if malignancy
cinacalcet if hyperparathyroidism (renal patients)

15

How is hyPERphosphatemia managed?

calcium preparations
aluminium preparations (accumulation- used less)
sevelamer

16

What is acute porphyria?

Genetic defect in harm biosynthesis.
If certain drugs are taken, haemolytic anaemia and acute porphyria crises can occur.

Treatment for crisis: head arginate.

17

What is phenylketonuria (PKU)?

intolerance to phenylalanine
AVOID aspartame
Restrict dietary proteins: diary, meat, fish, beans, nuts.

18

What are the fat soluble vitamins?

ADEK

19

What are the water soluble vitamins?

blueCs-
BC

20

What is vitamin A?
What are the benefits?

Retinol
Benefits: vision, skin
Deficiency: ocular effects
Sources: liver, cod liver oil, eggs.

NOTE: teratogenic

21

What is vitamin C?
What are the benefits?

Ascorbic acid
Benefits: wound healing, collagen, antioxidant
Deficiency: rare. scurvy
sources: citrus fruits

22

What is vitamin D?
What are the benefits?

calciferol
Benefits: bones and teeth
Deficiency: rickets, osteomalacia.

NOTE: needs conversion by kidneys into active form.
In renal impairment, give hydroxylated (active) form: alfacalcidol or calcitriol.

23

What is vitamin D?
What are the benefits?

phytomenadione
Benefits: blood clotting
Sources: green leafy vegetables.
Not to be given with warfarin.

24

What are the B vitamins?

B1- thiamine - encephalopathy
B2- riboflavin- skin
B3-niacin - healthy skin
B6- pyridoxine- neuropathy
B7-biotin - hair and nails
B9- folic acid
B12- cobalamin - RBCs

25

How are neural tube defects prevented in pregnancy?

Low risk pregnancies (all pregnancies):
folic acid 400 micrograms OD before conception and until week 12 of pregnancy.

High risk pregnancies (on anti epileptics, sickle cell disease, diabetes)
folic acid 5mg OD before conception and until week 12 of pregnancy.