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Flashcards in Blood Cell Evaluation Deck (46):
1

What is included in a complete blood count?

- leukogram (leukocytes)
- erythrogram (erythrocytes)
- thrombogram (platelets)

2

What are causes of increased cell concentration?

- increased production
- shift from SP or other non-circulating pool to CP
- increased blood life span

3

Cypotenia

Decreased cell concentration due to:
- decreased production
- CP to non-circulating pool
- decreased life span

4

CBC blood sample collection

- KEDTA
- no clots or platelet clumps
- keep at RT, or 24 hrs in refrigerator

5

Monolayer

Erythrocytes may touch each other (if not anemic) and leukocytes nuclear and cytoplasmic features are visible

6

Romanowsky stain

Stains acidic structures basophilic (DNA/RNA) and alkaline structures eosinophilic (hemoglobin, eosinophil granules)

7

What 3 stains make up a Romanowsky stain?

- diff quick
- wright
- giemsa

8

Neutrophilic

Granules that do not stain

9

Eosinophilic

Granules that are alkaline (stain red)

10

Azurophilc

Similar to basophils, stain pinkish/blue

11

Impedance

Determine cell count and cell size as cells disrupt the current

12

Relative changes may not ________

Reflect true changes

13

Granulocytes

Defense and die
- neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

14

Lymphocytes

Blastogenesis, return to blood, or die

15

Monocytes

Histiocytes or macrophages, defense and die

16

Mast cells

Defense and die

17

Blastogenesis

Transformation of small lymphocytes of peripheral blood into cells capable to undergoing mitosis

18

How many segments does a neutrophil normally have?

2-4
- 5 or more is hypersegmented

19

Left shift vs right shift

- left: more immature cells in circulation
- right: more hypersegmented cells in circulation

20

What do neutrophils produce

- IL-1
- IL-3
- IL-6
- GM-CSF
- G-CSF

21

What do neutrophils release?

- chemo attractants
- cytokines

22

Blood

- half life of 5-10 hrs
- circulating neutrophil pool
- marginated neutrophil pool
- CNP:MNP: 1:1 most mammals, 3:1 in cat

23

Blood neutrophil concentration

- production
- release
- CNP:MNP
- migration to tissue

24

Neutrophils in the tissue

- C5a, IL8, LTB, PAF
- die in respiratory and alimentary tissues

25

Left shift

Increase of non-segmented neutrophils in the blood
- decrease of SNP leading to release of MatP
- acute inflammation via infectious or non-infectious agents
- steroids and endotoxin

26

Left shift classification

- mild: bands
- moderate: bands and metamyelocytes
- marked: bands, metamyelocytes, and myelocytes

27

Increase in nonsegmented neutrophils =

Left shift

28

Left shift scenarios

- {NSN}>{SN}: degenerative
- {SN}reference interval and {SN}>{NSN}: regenerative
- {SN}WRI: not classified

29

Left shift clinical relevance

- regenerative: adequate response to the inflammatory process, better prognosis
- degenerative: inadequate response, worst prognosis

30

Right shift

Increased numbers of hypersegmented neutrophils (5 or more segmentations)
- glucocorticoid hormones: endogenous and exogenous

31

Neutrophilia

Acute inflammatory response
- inflammatory mediators
- increase CNP (bands)
- release of SNP in hours
- release of MatNP occurs after depletion of SNP
- increased production from stem cells (5 days)

32

Acute refers to ______

Type of inflammation, NOT time!
- demand of neutrophils by the tissue
- mediators are necessary to increase release of neutrophils

33

Where are neutrophils not present?

- brain
- spinal cord
- superficial cutaneous
- lower urinary tract

34

Where are neutrophils present?

- respiratory tract
- pancreas
- peritoneal of pleural cavities
- occasionally: uterus, liver, intestines

35

Leukemoid response

Looks like leukemia, is proven not to be
- focal suppurative: pyometra, pleuritis, pyothorax, peritonitis, prostatitis, penumonia, abscesses
- other: canine rectal or pulmonary neoplasms, babesiosis, hepatozoonosis

36

Bovine have small _____, so need to increase production

SNP

37

Neutrophilia - chronic inflammatory

- inflammation after at least a week
- replenishment of SNP: release of segs, not bands
- less severe neutrophilia
- with persistent intense stimulus, acute inflammatory response persists
- chronic: duration of disease (granulocytic hyperplasia)

38

Neutrophilia due to steroid stress

- endogenous or exogenous glucocorticoids
- shift from MNP to CNP
- canine, equine, bovine it doubles, greater in felines
- decreased emigration to tissues, increased circulating life span
- increased release from BM (mostly mature, some bands)
- most frequently seen in dogs
- left shift (less than 1,000), right shift, or no shift

39

Physiologic neutrophilia

- catecholamines
- shift from MNP to CNP
- doubles for dogs, horses and cattle, triplicate or quadruplicate for feline
- frequent in healthy animals
- back to normal in 60 min
- may increase in lymphocytes numbers

40

Chronic myeloid leukemia

- clonal proliferation
- mature (segmented) neutrophils
- difficult to differentiate from extreme neutrophilia
- acute myeloid leukemia --> granulocyte precursors (immature cells)

41

Paraneoplastic neutrophilia

Neoplastic cells produce G-CSF or similar
- adematous polyp, renal tubular carcinoma, metastatic fibrosarcoma (dogs)

42

Other forms of neutrophilia

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency: dogs and cattle
G-CSF administration
Estrogen toxicosis: 2-3 weeks after administration

43

Inflammatory neutropenia

Overwhelming infection
- migration exceeds release
- mediators lead to increased production (takes 2 days)
- SNP released first, followed by MatNP (if migration is too severe, left shift may not be present)
- common in cattle (small SNP)

44

Endotoxemia

Margination of neutrophils
- duration: 1-3 hrs
- stimulate release from BM in 8-12 hrs
- stimulate production in 3-5 days

45

Peripheral destruction (immune mediated)

Antibody binds to neutrophils
- destruction by mononuclear phagocyte system
- may be responsive to glucocorticoid treatment
- BM: may see granulocytic hyperplasia

46

Hemophagocytic syndrome

Phagocyte hyperplasia
- may see other cytopenias
- in people is secondary to infectious and neoplastic