Flashcards in Blood/f Deck (145)
The structure of a RBC
Bioconcave disk, thin middle, thick outer edge
Does a RBC have a nucleus or mitochondria?
NO (so O2 cant be stolen)(must use fermentation through glycolysis pathway)
Why does a RBC have a large surface area?
so it can exchange O2 and CO2 quicker
RBCs stack for what reason?
so they can pass easily through narrow capillaries. (they can also bend and flex)
what is the average volume of a single RBC?
Mean Corpuscular volume (MCV)
the name of the abbreviation Hb
Hb is a _____ in RBCs than have 2___ and 2_____
protein/alpha chains/beta chains
Each molecule of heme contains how many chains? and what do they contain?
4/ Iron (Iron molecules bind with oxygen)
Each RBC can carry 4 O2s at a time because...
it has a heme/iron molecule on each alpha and beta chain
"oxyhemaglobin" because oxygen is bound causing the blood to be bright red.
When the oxygen is released...
the RBC becomes deoxyhemoglobin
When CO2 binds to hemoglobin...
it becomes carbaminohemoglobin
when Hb level is low, person becomes weak, lethargic, and confused... what do they "have"?
anemia (brain isn't getting enough oxygen)
the presence of heme in urine
presence of whole RBCs in urine
When RBC is old, the body breaks down the cell. each heme becomes..
Abnormal Hemoglobin (ex. thalassemia and sickle cell anemia)
Sickle cell anemia is
T: inability to produce adequate numbers of alpha and beta chains.
S: One single mutation in beta chains (causes call to become stiff and curved and very painful)
bruising is discolored due to?
damaged/old RBCs are _________ by macrophages which break down ________ into a ____ pigment called Biliverdin
Biliverdin is then converted(oxidized) into ______ in the blood stream
_____ binds to bilirubin and transports to the ______ for the excretion in the bile
if the liver cannot absorb and secrete bilirubin and people turn yellow and this is called _______?
_________(plasma protein in blood) binds to excess iron
Antigens are substances (_______,_______) which are "normally" foreign to the body and can produce an immune response if ______ are present
most(Toxins, microbes)/ antibodies
Antibodies have what type of shape?
The human body produces special ______ called antibodies when it encounters "antigen". the antibody will bind to antigen causing it to______
most _____ are proteins located on the cell membrane of _______
what is determined by the presence and absence of a surface antigen?
Blood type (A,B and Rh)
Type A has surface antigen A and antibodies to...