Blood Gas Abnormalities ✅ Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blood Gas Abnormalities ✅ Deck (70)
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1

What is the normal blood pH?

7.34-7.44

2

What is the normal blood CO2?

4.6-6

3

What happens to the blood CO2 in respiratory acidosis?

It is high

4

What happens to the blood CO2 in uncompensated metabolic acidosis?

It is normal

5

What happens to the blood CO2 in compensated metabolic acidosis?

It is low

6

What is the normal blood HCO3?

22-26mmol/L

7

What happens to the blood HCO3 in metabolic acidosis?

It is low

8

What happens to the blood HCO3 in uncompensated respiratory acidosis?

It is normal

9

What happens to blood HCO3 in compensated respiratory acidosis?

It is high

10

What is the normal base excess?

-2 to +2 mmol/L

11

What happens to base excess in uncompensated respiratory acidosis?

It is normal

12

What happens to base excess in uncompensated respiratory acidosis?

It is high

13

What happens to base excess in metabolic acidosis?

It is low

14

What is pH defined as?

A decimal logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion activity or concentration in a solution

15

How is pH maintained in the range of 7.34-7.44?

By several buffering systems

16

What is the main buffering system that maintains blood pH in range?

The carbonic acid-bicarbonate system

17

What is the equation for the carbonic acid-carbonate system

HCO3- + H+ ↔ H2CO3 ↔ H2O + CO2

18

What equation describes the relationship between pH, HCO3, and CO2?

The Henderson-Hasselbach equation

19

What is the Henderson-Hasselbach equation?

pH = 6.1 + log10 ( HCO3- / 0.03xpCO2)

20

What causes respiratory alkalosis?

Hyperventilation

21

How does hyperventilation cause respiratory alkalosis?

Because in hyperventilation, CO2 is blown off and pH increases

22

What causes respiratory acidosis?

Hypoventilation

23

How does hypoventilation cause respiratory acidosis?

Because CO2 is retained and the blood becomes acidotic

24

Do respiratory changes have a fast or slow effect on the blood pH?

Fast

25

What is the importance of HCO3- in the. blood?

It is the base and a buffer of hydrogen ions

26

Where do hydrogen ions in the body come from?

They are a product of normal cellular metabolism

27

What causes metabolic acidosis?

Excess production of hydrogen ions

28

How does excess production of hydrogen ions cause metabolic acidosis?

The buffering effect of HCO3 is overcome, and the blood becomes acidotic

29

Give 4 examples of causes of excess acid?

- Lactic acid
- Ketone production
- Acid administration
- Bicarbonate loss

30

When might there be excess lactic acid?

In shock