Dehydration and Fluid Management Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Dehydration and Fluid Management Deck (49)
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1

How does the total body fluid compare in children to adults?

It is higher in children

2

What % of the body is made up of water at birth?

80%

3

What % of the body is made up of water by adulthood?

55-60%

4

Where is water distributed throughout the body?

- Intracellular space
- Extracellular space

5

What proportion of water is distributed in the intracellular space?

2/3

6

What proportion of water is distributed in the extracellular space?

1/3

7

Where is water distributed within the extracellular space?

- Interstitial
- Intravascular

8

What proportion of extracellular water is interstitial?

75%

9

What proportion of extracellular water is extracellular?

25%

10

What does the distribution of water between the intracellular and extracellular spaces depend on?

The pressure and osmotic gradients between them

11

What is dehydration?

Loss of water and electrolytes

12

What might cause children to become dehydrated?

- Reduced oral fluid intake
- Additional fluid losses
- Increased insensible losses
- Loss of normal fluid retaining mechanisms

13

What might cause reduced oral fluid intake?

- Reduced appetite due to illness
- Vomiting
- Sore throat

14

What might cause additional fluid losses?

- Fever
- Diarrhoea

15

What might cause increased insensible losses?

- Increased sweating
- Tachypnoea

16

What might cause a loss of the normal fluid-retaining mechanisms?

- Capillary leak
- Burns
- Permeable skin of premature infants
- Increased urinary losses secondary to renal disease

17

Why are infants and young children more prone to dehydration than older children and adults?

- Body made up of more water
- High surface area in relation to their height or weight
- Relatively high evaporative water losses
- Higher metabolic rate, so higher turnover of water and electrolytes
- Rely on others to give them fluids

18

Does dehydration itself cause death?

No

19

How can dehydration lead to death?

It can cause shock, which can lead to death

20

When does shock occur in dehydration?

When there is rapid loss of at least 25% of intravascular volume that is not replaced at a similar rate from the interstitial space

21

Can shock occur without dehydration?

Yes

22

What does the treatment of shock require?

Rapid administration of intravascular volume of fluid

23

What should be true of fluid administered to treat shock?

It should approximate in electrolyte content to plasma

24

How should dehydration without shock be treated?

Gradual replacement of fluids

25

What should the electrolyte content of the fluid used to treat dehydration resemble?

The electrolyte content of the fluid that is lost, or to the total body electrolyte content

26

What can be used to objectively measure the total body fluid changes?

Weight

27

How can percentage dehydration be calculated?

(weight before - weight after ) / weight before = % dehydration

28

What is the limitation of calculating percentage dehydration?

Pre-illness weight is rarely available in emergency situations

29

What can be used to assess dehydration when pre-illness weight is not available?

Clinical symptoms and signs

30

Why are 'red flag' symptoms of dehydration important?

They help identify children with severe dehydration at increased risk of shock