Flashcards in Blood, Lymph, Immunity 💉 Deck (106):
Whole blood that flows through the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the heart and lungs is known as
Plasma makes up a larger percentage of the blood sample in animals with small red blood cells. Some examples of these animals are...
Cats and goats
The protein in the red blood cells that gives them their red color and enables them to carry large amounts of oxygen is called
What is the main function of red blood cells?
Carry oxygen from the lungs to the cells and tissues of the body
Which white blood cells are known as granulocytes?
Eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils
Which white blood cells are known as agranulocytes?
Monocytes and lymphocytes
A general term for the production of all blood cells is...
Where in the bone are most of the blood cells produced?
Red bone marrow
The liquid portion of blood is called
As the cell matures, the nucleus becomes more condensed and smaller. What is the name of this?
What are three normal hemoglobin types?
Embryonic hemoglobin (HbE), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), and adult hemoglobin (Hb)
Where is embryonic hemoglobin (HbE) found?
Found early in developing fetuses
When is fetal hemoglobin (HbF) present?
Present in fetal blood during mid to late gestation and up to a couple months after birth
When is adult hemoglobin (Hb) found?
Found in the red blood cells of all animals, beginning a couple of weeks to a couple of months after birth
What is the major function of hemoglobin?
To transport oxygen to the tissues
What are the two normal physiological states of hemoglobin?
Oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin
What is the difference between oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin?
Oxyhemoglobin is hemoglobin that is carrying oxygen
Deoxyhemoglobin is hemoglobin that has given up its oxygen
What does senescence mean?
The process of aging
What is the function of macrophages?
Removing aging red blood cells from circulation and break them down into components that can be recycled in the body or eliminated as waste material
Vaguely, what is haptoglobin?
A transport plasma protein
When haptoglobin is filled with in conjugated hemoglobin, excess unconjugated hemoglobin appears in the plasma. What is this called?
Unconjugated hemoglobin has no way to get to the liver so it is carried to the kidney where is is eliminated in the urine. What is this called?
Intravascular hemolysis results in what three colors of plasma?
Results in pink, red, or brown plasma
A pathological condition that results in a decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is known as...
Anemia can be caused by what two things?
A low number of circulating mature RBC caused by blood loss, blood destruction, or decreased RBC production
not enough hemoglobin being produced for the normal number of RBCs present
An increase above normal in the number of RBC is known as...
What are the three types of polycythemia?
Relative, compensatory, and polycythemia rubra Vera
Relative polycythemia is seen when...
Seen when there is a loss of fluid from blood
Commonly seen in animals that are dehydrated because of vomiting, diarrhea, profuse sweating, or not drinking enough water
Compensatory polycythemia is a result of what?
Why would a patient with CHF (congestive heart failure) become polycythemic?
Because the heart isn't pumping enough blood to the tissues so a hypoxic condition results
What is polycythemia rubra vera?
A rare bone marrow disorder characterized by increased production of RBCs for an unknown reason
What is another name for platelets?
What is the definition of thrombopoiesis?
Production of platelets
The process by which blood is prevented from leaking out of damages blood vessels is know as...
If platelets are not present in adequate numbers, large numbers of RBCs can migrate through the endothelial wall and produce small hemorrhages around the body. What are these hemorrhages called?
What are the five types of white blood cells?
Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes
What WBC has antibody production and cellular immunity?
What does polymorphonuclear mean?
Multilobed, segmented nucleus
What does pleomorphic mean?
Varying shapes, nonsegmented nucleus
Which WBCs are granulocytes?
Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
Which WBCs are agranulocytes?
Lymphocytes and monocytes
The general term for the formation of WBCs is...
The presence of ______ is what causes the soluble fibrinogen to be converted to insoluble fibrin strands
The production of all granulocytes is called...
Neutrophils granules contain chemicals called_______ which aid in killing microorganisms that have been engulfed by the neutrophil
Neutrophils are also known as...
Polymorphonuclear cells, PMNs (Polymorphonuclear leukocytes), and segs
How long does in take to produce a mature neutrophil under normal conditions?
The neutrophil granules are organelles called...
Neutrophils leave the blood vessel by squeezing between the cells of the endothelium. What is this process called?
Neutrophils are attracted to a site of infection by chemotaxis. Explain this process.
Chemotaxis is a process by which neutrophils and other cells are attracted by inflammatory chemicals produced by the interaction between microorganisms and the tissues they are invading
Eosinophils make up what percentage of the total WBC count?
How long does it take for an eosinophil to form?
How do eosinophils stain differently in a dog, cat, horse, and cattle/sheep/pigs?
Dog: stain very lightly
Cat: stain darker than dogs
Horse: stain very intensely
Cattle/sheep/pigs: stain pink to red
Increased numbers of eosinophils in peripheral blood is called what?
When can eosinophilia be seen?
It can be seen during allergic reactions and certain parasitic infections
Increased release of nature eosins from storage pool in the bone marrow
Migration of eosins from marginal pool to the circulating pool
Increased production in the bone marrow
Increased time spent in peripheral blood before entering the tissue
Decreased numbers of eosinophils in peripheral blood is called...
Basophils share some characteristics with tissue mast cells but what is the difference?
Basophils are not commonly seen in tissues, mast cells are larger than basophils and have more cytoplasmic granules that are not water soluble, mast cells have a round nucleus that doesn't segment
Monocytes make up how much of the circulating WBCs in all common domestic species?
What is the total monocyte development time?
Collectively, the tissue macrophages and monocytes are known as the...
Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS)
What are the three different types of lymphocytes?
T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and natural killers
T lymphocytes (T cells) are processed in the _______ before going to peripheral lymphoid tissues
The pre-T cells in the thymus are the...
What are T cells responsible for?
Responsible for cell mediated immunity and for activating B cells
Most of the lymphocytes in peripheral blood are...
What does the "b" mean in "B cells"
What are B cells responsible for?
Which cell is preprogrammed to recognize a virus that will respond by eventually making antibodies against the virus?
When B cells recognize an antigen, they transform into _______ that release antibodies
When the body produces antibodies, what kind of immunity is produced?
What is the function of plasma cells?
Produce, store, and release antibodies
Antibodies that have been produced, stored, and released by plasma cells are called...
Both T and B cells can become ______, which are clones of an original lymphocyte
The fluid carried by the lymphatic system is called...
What does lymph contain?
Lymphocytes, nutrients (like proteins and fats), hormones, and other substances that enters tissue fluid along with plasma
An accumulation of fluid in the tissues is known as...
Lymph from the digestive system is called...
After a meal, chyle contains microscopic particles of fat known as ________ that cause lymph to appear white or pale yellow and cloudy
What are the four primary functions of the lymphatic system?
Removal of excess tissue fluid, waste material transport, filtration of lymph, and protein transport
Where do lymphocytes reside in the lymph node?
The medulla forms the skeleton of the lymph node and contains what?
Contains many tissue macrophages
What is different about pigs lymph nodes?
They have a reversed anatomy in that the lymph nodules are at the center of the node
What is the name of the lymphoid organ located in the caudal neck and cranial thoracic region on either side of the trachea?
What is the organ that helps kick-start the normal development of the immune system?
_________ is a general term for lymphoid tissue found in the lining of the intestines
Gut associated lymph tissue (GALT)
What is the function of the immune system?
To protect the animal from anything that could cause damage or disease
_______ immunity provides a rapid response to foreign invaders
Describe nonspecific immunity
Involves tissues, cells, and processes that protect an animal against anything it recognizes as "not self" or foreign. It is a generalized response and does not initiate a specific type of response against a specific antigen.
The first line of defense against foreign invaders involves the protective barrier of the skin and mucous membranes that prevent antigens from entering the body in nonspecific immunity. What does the second line of defense involve?
Inflammatory response, phagocytosis, natural killer cells, interferon, and complement
What is interferon?
A protein produced by a cell after it has been infected by a virus, interferon respond rapidly to inhibit further development and spread of the virus
What is the third line of defense against foreign invaders?
What are the two types of specific immunity?
Cell mediated and humoral
What is cell mediated immunity?
The function of at cells that attach to antigenic sites on the surfaces of foreign cells
What are cytotoxic T cells (Tc) are also known as...
Killer cells or killer T cells
What is the function of cytotoxic T cells?
They attach to the antigenic cells and destroy them but are not damaged themselves
What is the function of helper T cells (Th)?
They help the immune response by secreting cytokines into surrounding tissues
What are the functions of suppressor T cells (Ts)?
Inhibit helper T cell and cytotoxic T cell function by negative feedback. They also prevent B cells from transforming into plasma cells.
Antibodies are also known as...
What are the five types of immunoglobulins?
IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgD
What is IgM?
The first antibody produced when an animal is initially exposed to an antigen
What is IgG?
Produced in larger amounts than IgM when an animal is exposed to an antigen after the initial exposure.
Which immunoglobulin is the most abundant?
What does IgA play an important part in?
Preventing diseases caused by antigens that may enter the body through mucosal surfaces like intestinal tract and lungs
What is IgE associated with?
Associated with an allergic response
The function of which immunoglobulin is unknown?