Blood, Lymph, Immunity 💉 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blood, Lymph, Immunity 💉 Deck (106):
1

Whole blood that flows through the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the heart and lungs is known as

Peripheral blood

2

Plasma makes up a larger percentage of the blood sample in animals with small red blood cells. Some examples of these animals are...

Cats and goats

3

The protein in the red blood cells that gives them their red color and enables them to carry large amounts of oxygen is called

Hemoglobin

4

What is the main function of red blood cells?

Carry oxygen from the lungs to the cells and tissues of the body

5

Which white blood cells are known as granulocytes?

Eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils

6

Which white blood cells are known as agranulocytes?

Monocytes and lymphocytes

7

A general term for the production of all blood cells is...

Hematopoiesis

8

Where in the bone are most of the blood cells produced?

Red bone marrow

9

The liquid portion of blood is called

Plasma

10

As the cell matures, the nucleus becomes more condensed and smaller. What is the name of this?

Pyknotic

11

What are three normal hemoglobin types?

Embryonic hemoglobin (HbE), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), and adult hemoglobin (Hb)

12

Where is embryonic hemoglobin (HbE) found?

Found early in developing fetuses

13

When is fetal hemoglobin (HbF) present?

Present in fetal blood during mid to late gestation and up to a couple months after birth

14

When is adult hemoglobin (Hb) found?

Found in the red blood cells of all animals, beginning a couple of weeks to a couple of months after birth

15

What is the major function of hemoglobin?

To transport oxygen to the tissues

16

What are the two normal physiological states of hemoglobin?

Oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin

17

What is the difference between oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin?

Oxyhemoglobin is hemoglobin that is carrying oxygen
Deoxyhemoglobin is hemoglobin that has given up its oxygen

18

What does senescence mean?

The process of aging

19

What is the function of macrophages?

Removing aging red blood cells from circulation and break them down into components that can be recycled in the body or eliminated as waste material

20

Vaguely, what is haptoglobin?

A transport plasma protein

21

When haptoglobin is filled with in conjugated hemoglobin, excess unconjugated hemoglobin appears in the plasma. What is this called?

Hemoglobinemia

22

Unconjugated hemoglobin has no way to get to the liver so it is carried to the kidney where is is eliminated in the urine. What is this called?

Hemoglobinuria

23

Intravascular hemolysis results in what three colors of plasma?

Results in pink, red, or brown plasma

24

A pathological condition that results in a decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is known as...

Anemia

25

Anemia can be caused by what two things?

A low number of circulating mature RBC caused by blood loss, blood destruction, or decreased RBC production
OR
not enough hemoglobin being produced for the normal number of RBCs present

26

An increase above normal in the number of RBC is known as...

Polycythemia

27

What are the three types of polycythemia?

Relative, compensatory, and polycythemia rubra Vera

28

Relative polycythemia is seen when...

Seen when there is a loss of fluid from blood
Commonly seen in animals that are dehydrated because of vomiting, diarrhea, profuse sweating, or not drinking enough water

29

Compensatory polycythemia is a result of what?

Hypoxia

30

Why would a patient with CHF (congestive heart failure) become polycythemic?

Because the heart isn't pumping enough blood to the tissues so a hypoxic condition results

31

What is polycythemia rubra vera?

A rare bone marrow disorder characterized by increased production of RBCs for an unknown reason

32

What is another name for platelets?

Thrombocytes

33

What is the definition of thrombopoiesis?

Production of platelets

34

The process by which blood is prevented from leaking out of damages blood vessels is know as...

Hemostasis

35

If platelets are not present in adequate numbers, large numbers of RBCs can migrate through the endothelial wall and produce small hemorrhages around the body. What are these hemorrhages called?

Petechiae

36

What are the five types of white blood cells?

Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes

37

What WBC has antibody production and cellular immunity?

Lymphocytes

38

What does polymorphonuclear mean?

Multilobed, segmented nucleus

39

What does pleomorphic mean?

Varying shapes, nonsegmented nucleus

40

Which WBCs are granulocytes?

Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils

41

Which WBCs are agranulocytes?

Lymphocytes and monocytes

42

The general term for the formation of WBCs is...

Leukopoiesis

43

The presence of ______ is what causes the soluble fibrinogen to be converted to insoluble fibrin strands

Thrombin

44

The production of all granulocytes is called...

Granulopoiesis

45

Neutrophils granules contain chemicals called_______ which aid in killing microorganisms that have been engulfed by the neutrophil

Lysosomal enzymes

46

Neutrophils are also known as...

Polymorphonuclear cells, PMNs (Polymorphonuclear leukocytes), and segs

47

How long does in take to produce a mature neutrophil under normal conditions?

3-6 days

48

The neutrophil granules are organelles called...

Lysosomes

49

Neutrophils leave the blood vessel by squeezing between the cells of the endothelium. What is this process called?

Diapedesis

50

Neutrophils are attracted to a site of infection by chemotaxis. Explain this process.

Chemotaxis is a process by which neutrophils and other cells are attracted by inflammatory chemicals produced by the interaction between microorganisms and the tissues they are invading

51

Eosinophils make up what percentage of the total WBC count?

0%-5%

52

How long does it take for an eosinophil to form?

2-6 days

53

How do eosinophils stain differently in a dog, cat, horse, and cattle/sheep/pigs?

Dog: stain very lightly
Cat: stain darker than dogs
Horse: stain very intensely
Cattle/sheep/pigs: stain pink to red

54

Increased numbers of eosinophils in peripheral blood is called what?

Eosinophilia

55

When can eosinophilia be seen?

It can be seen during allergic reactions and certain parasitic infections
Increased release of nature eosins from storage pool in the bone marrow
Migration of eosins from marginal pool to the circulating pool
Increased production in the bone marrow
Increased time spent in peripheral blood before entering the tissue

56

Decreased numbers of eosinophils in peripheral blood is called...

Eosinopenia

57

Basophils share some characteristics with tissue mast cells but what is the difference?

Basophils are not commonly seen in tissues, mast cells are larger than basophils and have more cytoplasmic granules that are not water soluble, mast cells have a round nucleus that doesn't segment

58

Monocytes make up how much of the circulating WBCs in all common domestic species?

5%-6%

59

What is the total monocyte development time?

24-36 hours

60

Collectively, the tissue macrophages and monocytes are known as the...

Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS)

61

What are the three different types of lymphocytes?

T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and natural killers

62

T lymphocytes (T cells) are processed in the _______ before going to peripheral lymphoid tissues

Thymus

63

The pre-T cells in the thymus are the...

Thymocytes

64

What are T cells responsible for?

Responsible for cell mediated immunity and for activating B cells

65

Most of the lymphocytes in peripheral blood are...

T cells

66

What does the "b" mean in "B cells"

Bursa equivalent

67

What are B cells responsible for?

Antibody production

68

Which cell is preprogrammed to recognize a virus that will respond by eventually making antibodies against the virus?

B cells

69

When B cells recognize an antigen, they transform into _______ that release antibodies

Plasma cells

70

When the body produces antibodies, what kind of immunity is produced?

Humoral immunity

71

What is the function of plasma cells?

Produce, store, and release antibodies

72

Antibodies that have been produced, stored, and released by plasma cells are called...

Immunoglobins

73

Both T and B cells can become ______, which are clones of an original lymphocyte

Memory cells

74

The fluid carried by the lymphatic system is called...

Lymph

75

What does lymph contain?

Lymphocytes, nutrients (like proteins and fats), hormones, and other substances that enters tissue fluid along with plasma

76

An accumulation of fluid in the tissues is known as...

Edema

77

Lymph from the digestive system is called...

Chyle

78

After a meal, chyle contains microscopic particles of fat known as ________ that cause lymph to appear white or pale yellow and cloudy

Chylomicrons

79

What are the four primary functions of the lymphatic system?

Removal of excess tissue fluid, waste material transport, filtration of lymph, and protein transport

80

Where do lymphocytes reside in the lymph node?

The cortex

81

The medulla forms the skeleton of the lymph node and contains what?

Contains many tissue macrophages

82

What is different about pigs lymph nodes?

They have a reversed anatomy in that the lymph nodules are at the center of the node

83

What is the name of the lymphoid organ located in the caudal neck and cranial thoracic region on either side of the trachea?

Thymus

84

What is the organ that helps kick-start the normal development of the immune system?

Thymus

85

_________ is a general term for lymphoid tissue found in the lining of the intestines

Gut associated lymph tissue (GALT)

86

What is the function of the immune system?

To protect the animal from anything that could cause damage or disease

87

_______ immunity provides a rapid response to foreign invaders

Nonspecific immunity

88

Describe nonspecific immunity

Involves tissues, cells, and processes that protect an animal against anything it recognizes as "not self" or foreign. It is a generalized response and does not initiate a specific type of response against a specific antigen.

89

The first line of defense against foreign invaders involves the protective barrier of the skin and mucous membranes that prevent antigens from entering the body in nonspecific immunity. What does the second line of defense involve?

Inflammatory response, phagocytosis, natural killer cells, interferon, and complement

90

What is interferon?

A protein produced by a cell after it has been infected by a virus, interferon respond rapidly to inhibit further development and spread of the virus

91

What is the third line of defense against foreign invaders?

Specific immunity

92

What are the two types of specific immunity?

Cell mediated and humoral

93

What is cell mediated immunity?

The function of at cells that attach to antigenic sites on the surfaces of foreign cells

94

What are cytotoxic T cells (Tc) are also known as...

Killer cells or killer T cells

95

What is the function of cytotoxic T cells?

They attach to the antigenic cells and destroy them but are not damaged themselves

96

What is the function of helper T cells (Th)?

They help the immune response by secreting cytokines into surrounding tissues

97

What are the functions of suppressor T cells (Ts)?

Inhibit helper T cell and cytotoxic T cell function by negative feedback. They also prevent B cells from transforming into plasma cells.

98

Antibodies are also known as...

Immunoglobulins

99

What are the five types of immunoglobulins?

IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgD

100

What is IgM?

The first antibody produced when an animal is initially exposed to an antigen

101

What is IgG?

Produced in larger amounts than IgM when an animal is exposed to an antigen after the initial exposure.

102

Which immunoglobulin is the most abundant?

IgG

103

What does IgA play an important part in?

Preventing diseases caused by antigens that may enter the body through mucosal surfaces like intestinal tract and lungs

104

What is IgE associated with?

Associated with an allergic response

105

The function of which immunoglobulin is unknown?

IgD

106

When a newborns immune system is fully functional, it can be vaccinated to develop an ________

Active immunity