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Flashcards in Blue Box: Exam 1 Deck (23):

How do accessory bones form and where are they most common?

When additional ossification centers form and do not fuse with main bone

Common in foot


What is muscle atrophy and what are some causes?

The wasting of muscle tissue

Primary disorder of muscle, lesion of a nerve, immobilization of a limb (cast)


How do arteries deal with blockages?

Anastomoses: communication between branches which leads to collateral circulation (re routing) or termination of blood flow to that area (terminal artery)


How are varicose veins formed?

Walls of veins lose elasticity and become weak/dilate under pressure of blood flow and gravity


What is a Dowager hump mad how is it formed?

Excessive thoracic kyphosis

Result of the corrosion of the anterior part of vertebrae


What is hollow back and how is it caused?

Excessive lumbar lordosis

Result of weak trunk musculature


What are the causes of scoliosis and what movement is limited?

Asymmetric weakness of intrinsic back muscles, failure of half of a vertebrae to develop, leg length discrepancy

Lateral flexion (due to change In symmetry of muscles)


What is a laminectomy and what are some reasons for getting this procedure?

Excision of a spinous process and supporting laminae to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves

Tumor, herniated disc, hypertrophy (excess growth)


What 2 forces cause fracture and dislocation in vertebrae?

Abrupt flexion and compression

Most common in car accidents


What is spina bifida and it's symptoms?

Common condition where laminae of L5/S1 fail to develop and fuse

Usually no symptoms


How is spina bifida cystica different from regular spina bifida?

One or more vertebral arches completely fail to develop causing herniation of meninges/ spinal cord. Symptoms are limb paralysis and loss of bladder/bowel control.


How does hyperextension effect different regions of the vertebral column?

Cervical: whiplash (non severe) or death (severe)
Thoracic: fracture (T11-T12 most common...more mobile)
Lumbar: spondyloisthesis


What happens when blood flow is reduced in the vertebral arteries through the foramina transversarium in the cervical region?

Arteriosclerosis: light headed dizziness with prolonged head rotation


What is the cause of herniated discs and what are the resulting symptoms ?

Degeneration of the posterior longitudinal ligament and wearing of the annulus fibrosus causes the nucleus pulposus to herniate and compress spinal cord/nerves

Results in either localized or chronic pain

Most common L4-L5 or L5-S1


What is the result of the transverse ligament of the atlas rupturing?

The dens is set free causing dislocation

Incomplete dislocation: atlanto-axial subluxation
Complete dislocation: quadriplegia or death
(Dens is driven up into spinal cord or medulla)


What is winged scapula?

Injury to the long thoracic nerve cause paralysis to the serratus anterior, which causes the scapula to move laterally/posteriorly and look like a wing


What is the difference between a back sprain and a back strain?

Sprain: injury involving only ligaments

Strain: stretching or tearing of muscle fiber

Back's protective mechanism is to go into spasm in response to injury


What is the cause and effect of congenital torticollis?

A tumor develops in SCM before birth causing neck to be twisted my contracted cervical muscles


Infant's head is pulled excessively during childbirth and SCM is damaged


What is cervical dystonia?

Aka spasmodic torticollis which is adult onset


What are the injection sites of anesthesia for a cervical plexus block?

Nerve point of neck


What happens when the phrenic nerve is severed?

The diaphragm is paralyzed


What vein is used for a central line placement?

Subclavian vein


What vein is considered an "internal barometer"?

External jugular vein