Blue Boxes 1: Axilla and Brachial Plexus Flashcards Preview

IUSM Anatomy KG > Blue Boxes 1: Axilla and Brachial Plexus > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blue Boxes 1: Axilla and Brachial Plexus Deck (29)
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Which scapular anastomosis artery can reverse the direction of blood flow to allow blood to reach the third part of the axillary artery if the axillary artery is blocked medial to it?



What type of occlusion of the axillary artery does not allow sufficient time for adequate collateral circulation to develop?

Sudden Occlusion


Where will a surgical ligation of the axillary artery cut off the blood supply to the arm because the collateral circulation is inadequate?

Between the origins of the subscapular artery and the profunda brachial artery


Where can the axillary artery be palapated?

In the inferior part of the lateral wall of the axilla


Where can the axillary artery be compressed to stop perfuse bleeding?

The third part of the artery against the humerus, or at is origin as the subclavian artery crosses the 1st rib


What is an aneurysm?

Localized blood filled bulge in the wall of a blood vessel


Aneurysm of what artery can cause brachial plexus pain?



What is the relationship of the axillary vein to the axillary artery?



What is lymphangitis?

Inflammation of lymphatic vessels


What is lymphangitis characterized by on the body surface?

The development of warm, red, tender streaks in the skin of the limb


Infection in the upper limb causes an inflammation of what lymph nodes?



Excision of axillary lymph nodes is often necessary for what?

Staging and determinating the appropriate treatment of a cancer.


Lymphatic drainage of the upper limb may be impeded after the removal of the axillary nodes, resulting in lymphedema, which is what?

Swelling as a result of accumulated lymph


What two nerves are at risk during axillary node dissection?

Long thoracic nerve and the thoracodorsal nerve


What do you call a brachial plexus that goes from C4 - C8?

Prefixed brachial plexus


What do you call a brachial plexus that goes from C6 - T2

Postfixed brachial plexus


What often happens to the inferior trunk in a postfixed brachial plexus?

It may be compressed by the 1st rib


Injuries to the superior parts of the brachial plexus (C5 and C6) usually result from what?

Excessive increase in the angle between the neck and shoulder. EX a person is thrown off a motorcycle or a horse and lands on their shoulder


Injury to the superior truck of the brachial plexus is apparent by what characteristic limb position?

Waiter's tip position


What is Erb-Duchenne palsy?

Injury to the superior part of the brachial plexus that results in paralysis of the muscles of the shoulder and arm supplied by the C5 and C6 spinal nerve


What arm muscles are primarily innervated by C5 and C6?

Deltoid, Biceps, and Brachialis


Back packer's palsy?

superior brachial plexus injury that may produce muscles spasms and severe disability in hikers


What is a neurologic disorder of unknown cause that is characterized by the sudden onset of severe pain, usually around the shoulder. Pain begins at night and is followed by muscle weakness and muscular atrophy.

Acute brachial plexus neuritis


Compression of cords of the brachial plexus may result from what?

Prolonged hyperabduction of the arm


Where are the cords usually compressed after prolonged hyperabduction of the arm?

Between the coracoid process of the scapula and the pectoralis minor tendon.


What are common neurologic symptoms of cord compression?

Numbness, paresthesia (tingling), and erythema (redness of the skin caused by capillary dilation)


Injuries to inferior parts of the brachial plexus (Klumpke paralysis) are cause by what?

Upper limb is suddenly pulled superiorly
EX when a person grasps something to break a fall, babys arm gets pulled during birth


What is a common telltale sign of inferior brachial plexus injury?

Claw hand


Why would surgeons use a brachial plexus block anesthetic?

To operate on the upper limb without using a general anesthetic