# Blunt Trauma Flashcards Preview

## Exam 9 > Blunt Trauma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blunt Trauma Deck (107)
0
Q

Why can blunt trauma be deceptive?

A

The true nature of the injury is often hidden and evidence of the serious injury is very subtle or even absent

1
Q

What is the most common cause of trauma death and disability?

A

Blunt trauma

2
Q

What is the branch of physics dealing with forces of objects in motion and the energy exchanges that occur as objects collide?

A

Kinematics

3
Q

What are the two basic principals of kinetics?

A

The law of inertia

The law of energy conservation

4
Q

Which physics law helps to explain what happens during blunt trauma?

A

Inertia

5
Q

What is Newtons inertia law?

A

A body in motion will stay in motion

A body at rest will stay at rest

6
Q

What is the law of conservation?

A

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It can only be changed from one form to another.

7
Q

What is the function of an objects mass and velocity?

A

Kinetic energy

8
Q

What is the equation used to find force?

A

Mass(weight) x acceleration(deceleration)

9
Q

Which Newton law explains the forces at work during a collision?

A

Second law of motion

10
Q

_____ is defined as a wound or injury that is externally and violently produced by some outside force.

A

Trauma

11
Q

_____ is the draining of blood to the point at which life cannot be sustained.

A

Exsanguination

12
Q

What does the force devolved in a vehicle collision depend on?

A

The velocity of travel and the stopping distance

13
Q

When does body collision occur?

A

When a vehicle occupant strikes the vehicles interior

14
Q

What occurs to the speed of an unrestrained occupant in a vehicle collision?

A

It either remains at or close to the initial speed

15
Q

When does organ collision occur in an impact?

A

Results as the occupant contacts the vehicles interior and slows or stops

16
Q

What is a secondary collision?

A

Occurs when a vehicle occupant is impacted by objects traveling within the auto

17
Q

What are some common injuries associated with the use of lap belts by themselves?

A

Abdominal compression

Spinal fractures

18
Q

Airbags are also known as?

A

Supplemental restraint systems

19
Q

In which type of collision are airbags extremely effective?

A

Frontal

20
Q

What indicates the presence of an airbag?

A

SRS Sticker

21
Q

What type of airbags are only meant for the first impact of a collision?

A

Curtain airbags

Side airbags

22
Q

What is the proper placement of a child in a vehicle?

A

Facing rear

23
Q

What type of collision is the most common?

A

Rotational

24
Q

What are the top 2 collisions which are most common?

A

Rotational

Frontal

25
Q

In a more rural area, anticipate a greater percentage of _______ impacts with corresponding reductions in other categories.

A

Frontal

26
Q

The ________ pathway accounts for over 1/2 of deaths in vehicular collisions.

A

Up-and-over

27
Q

What are some common injuries seen in an up-and-over collision?

A

Possible bilateral fractures
Hollow-organ rupture
Liver laceration
Neck hyperextension/flexion

28
Q

In the _________ pathway, the unrestrained occupant slides downward as the vehicle comes to stop.

A

Down-and-under

29
Q

______, __________, _______ dislocations or fractures are common in down-and-under collisions.

A

Knee
Femur
Hip

30
Q

Paper bag syndrome usually occurs in which frontal impact collision?

A

Down-and-under

31
Q

While ejection may occur with other types of impact, it is most commonly associated with _____ impact.

A

Frontal

32
Q

What is the definition used to describe application of the forces of trauma along the axis of the spine?

A

33
Q

The _______ is the region of the vehicle designed to absorb the energy of impact.

A

Crumple zone

34
Q

In which impact is there an increase in upper extremity injuries?

A

Lateral

35
Q

What is the special consideration for lateral impacts in regards to injuries?

A

Index of suspicion for life-threatening internal injuries must be higher than vehicle damage alone suggests

36
Q

In a _____ impact, the auto is struck at an oblique angle and rotates as the collision forces are expanded.

A

Rotational

37
Q

In rotational impacts, autos involved are ____ from their path rather than _____.

A

Deflected

Stopped

38
Q

In rotational impacts, the occupants stopping distance _____, deceleration is more ____, and injuries are ____ serious.

A

Increases
Less

39
Q

What is the most common injury seen in rear-end impacts?

A

Neck

40
Q

A ____ is normally caused by a change in elevation and/or vehicle with a high center of gravity.

A

Rollover

41
Q

A common result of rollover is?

A

ejection or partial ejection with a limb or head trapped between the rolling vehicle and the ground.

42
Q

When should the direction of impact and amount of vehicle damage be evaluated?

A

During scene size up

43
Q

_____ indicates the presence of forces greater than those that could be absorbed by the crumple zone.

A

Intrusion

44
Q

A dented dash suggests injury to the _______ or injuries transmitted to the _____ or ____.

A

Knees
Femur
Hip

45
Q

Trauma to the head or body cavity accounts for _____ precent of vehicular mortality.

A

85%

46
Q

What happens to the driver in frontal motorcycle collisions?

A

Front of bike dips down, propelling rider upward and forward while the handlebars catch lower abdomen or pelvis

47
Q

An ______ motorcycle impact occurs when the bike strikes an object at an oblique angle .

A

Angular

48
Q

What happens to the rider in an angular motorcycle collision?

A

Riders lower extremity is trapped between the object struck and the bike

49
Q

What injuries are commonly seen with an angular motorcycle collision?

A

Fracture or crush of foot, ankle, knee, femur

Open wounds

50
Q

A _____ motorcycle impact occurs when an experienced rider, facing imminent collision, “lays the bike down”

A

Sliding

51
Q

What are the injuries resulting from an sliding motorcycle impact?

A

Lacerations, abrasions, minor fractures

52
Q

Motorcycle ejections result in which impacts?

A

Initial bike/object collision
Rider/object impact
Rider/ground impact

53
Q

Adult pedestrians generally turn _____ from oncoming vehicles and present a ____ surface to impact.

A

Away

Lateral

54
Q

What injuries are common in an adult who has been struck by a vehicle?

A

Tibia and fibula fractures

55
Q

_______ collisions usually results in what types of injuries?

A

Ejections, crush injuries secondary to rollover, and glancing blows against obstructions in the snow

56
Q

An _____ is an agent that enhances combustion of a fuel.

A

Oxidizer

57
Q

Explosions can be caused by ____, ____, or ______.

A

Dust
Fumes
Explosive compounds

58
Q

An explosion occurs when?

A

When an agent or environment combusts

59
Q

The heat and pressure differential between an exploding agent and surround air can produce several mechanisms of injury including?

A

Pressure wave, blast wind, projectiles, heat, and displacement of persons near the blast

60
Q

When the explosion involves a dust, aerosol, or gas cloud, the result is an ________, not _______ of detonation.

A

Area

Single point

61
Q

In an underwater detonation, any submerged portion of the victim is subject to the rapid _____ and _____.

A

Compression

Decompression

62
Q

The lethal range for an explosive charge increases ____ with an underwater detonation.

A

3x

63
Q

_____ is a rapid increase, then decrease, in atmospheric pressure created by an explosion.

A

Over pressure

64
Q

Most life-threatening compression injuries in pressure waves are usually limited to?

A

People in close proximity to the detonation, with the exceptions of gas-cloud ignitions and underwater detonations

65
Q

The ____ is the actual outward movement of heated and expanding gases from the explosion epicenter.

A

Blast wind

66
Q

What part of an explosion has less strength but greater duration than a pressure wave?

A

Blast wind

67
Q

What causes injuries seen from blast winds?

A

Blasts may propel debris or displace victims

68
Q

A blast wind is defined as?

A

The air movement caused as the heated and pressurized products of an explosion move outward

69
Q

An ordnance is defined as?

A

Military weapons and munitions

70
Q

A ____ is an arrow shaped projectile found in some military ordnance.

A

Flechette

71
Q

How does the design of the Flechette help?

A

Gives Flechette greater following surface and aligns the missiles in flight, reducing their wind resistance and increasing their range and penetrating ability

72
Q

What happens during an explosion in a confined space?

A

Pressure wave stays longer

73
Q

What is a danger to consider with confined space explosion?

A

Structural collapse

74
Q

An _____ is an agent that combusts easily or creates combustion.

A

Incendiary

75
Q

What is napalm?

A

A highly incendiary substance that clings to people or structures when spread by a blast

76
Q

Primary blast injuries are caused by?

A

The heat of the explosion and the overpressure wave

77
Q

Secondary blast injuries include?

A

Trauma caused by projectiles

78
Q

Tertiary blast injuries include?

A

Injuries resulting from personnel displacement and structural collapse

79
Q

When should a disaster triage be employed?

A

If the number of patients exceed the immediate capabilities of your EMS system

80
Q

What is the most common trauma associated with explosions?

A

Lung injury

81
Q

What are the signs and symptoms of a patient experiencing lung injury post blast?

A

Crackles
Dyspnea
Hemoptysis

82
Q

What position should patients be placed in if lung injury is a possibility following blast?

A

Left lateral recumbent position with head somewhat down

83
Q

____ are a release of stored gravitational energy.

A

Falls

84
Q

Newton’s second law illustrates that?

A

the more rapid the deceleration the greater the force and resultant injury

85
Q

Trauma resulting from a fall is dependent on?

A

The area of contact and the pathway of energy transmission

86
Q

What is considered a severe fall for an adult?

A

Dropping from more than three times height or 20 feet

87
Q

What is considered a severe fall for a child?

A

Drop from 10 feet

88
Q

Sports injuries are most commonly produced by?

A

extreme exertion, fatigue, or by direct trauma forces.

89
Q

Sports injuries can be secondary to?

A

Acceleration, deceleration, compression, rotation, hyperflexion, or hyperextension

90
Q

What occurs in a crush injury?

A

Great force to soft tissue and bone compress surfaces together while stretching semi fluid soft tissue laterally

91
Q

What causes a buildup of toxins in the blood stream?

A

Crush injuries

92
Q

What is the concern for blood flow returning to a limb with crush injury?

A

Blood may carry toxins back to the central circulation which could induce cardiac dysrhythmias

93
Q

The first tissue of the body to experience the effects of trauma is:

A

Skin

94
Q

The most common causes of blunt trauma is/are:

A

Motor vehicle crashes

95
Q

A physical exchange of energy from an object or surface transmitted through the skin into the body’s interior describes:

A

Penetrating trauma

96
Q

Blunt trauma can create internal injuries due to the movement of organs inside the body cavities. Which organ can be lacerated by the ligamentum teres?

A

The liver

97
Q

The draining if blood to the point at which life cannot be sustained is called:

A

Exsanguination

98
Q

Airbags work much differently than seat belts and are extremely effective for ______ crashes.

A

Frontal

99
Q

The child’s _____ makes protection in vehicle crashes difficult.

A

Anatomy

100
Q

Frontal impacts produce three pathways of patient travel. Injuries in the down-and-under pathway most commonly include:

A

Hollow-organ ruptures

101
Q

The ______ pathway accounts for over half of deaths in vehicular crashes.

A

Up-and-over

102
Q

When a ____ impact occurs, the index of suspicion for serious and life-threatening internal injuries must be higher than vehicle damage alone suggests.

A

Lateral

103
Q

The anatomical region most commonly injured in the rear-impact is the:

A

Neck

104
Q

In trauma associated with a blast, assessment should include a high index of suspicion for:

A

Lung injury

105
Q

When a patient has respiratory compromise due to a blast injury, aggressive ventilation can create:

A

Emboli

106
Q

In crush injuries, the release of toxins into the central circulation can cause:

A

Cardiac dysrhythmias