BMI and protein energy malnutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in BMI and protein energy malnutrition Deck (31):
1

BMI is an indicator of

body fat

2

BMI is measured by

weight in kg/ (height in metres)^2

3

BMI <18.5 is

underweight

4

Underweight BMI is

<18.5

5

BMI 18.5-25 is

normal weight

6

Normal weight BMI is

18.5-25

7

BMI 25-30 is

overweight

8

Overweight BMI is

25-30

9

Obesity BMI is

> 30

10

BMI >30 is

obese

11

Morbid obese BMI is

>40

12

BMI >40 is

morbidly obese

13

protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) exists when

there is inadequate intake of macronutrients

14

The two divisions of protein-energy malnutrition are

kwashiorkor (protein lack) and marasmus

15

Protein-energy malnutrition can also exist in the context of

eating disorders

16

What does an optimum diet provide in terms of vitamins and minerals?

a variety of foods to provide vitamins (mostly vegetable) and enough meat to provide iron

17

Low risk body percent fat for men is

14-20%

18

Low risk body percent fat for women is

18-30%

19

Body fat can be estimated by

caliper measurements of skinfold thickness; body density measurements by immersion in water (hydrodensitometry); bioelectric impedance (fat = better electrical insulator)

20

Energy needed per day is

132kJ/kg lean body mass

21

Increased risk of metabolic complications is associated with what waist circumference?

over 94 cm for men, over 80cm for women

22

Substantially increased risk of metabolic complications is associated with what waist circumference?

over 102cm for men, over 88cm for women

23

What is protein sparing?

when enough energy is provided by carbohydrate and fat for protein to be used structurally and not for gluconeogenesis

24

Long-term starvation has what affect on the gut?

intestinal villi degenerate because there is nothing to absorb; the gut digests itself, which complicates refeeding

25

What is kwashiorkor?

protein lack where energy intake may be adequate; causes oedema (aflatoxin from aspergillus fungus in the diet produces an epoxide via p450 that kills guanine in DNA; causes cell death in the liver and reduced serum albumin = pot belly) with maintenance of some subcutaneous fat tissue

26

What is marasmus?

nutrient lack and energy insufficient; skin and bones appearance with little or no subcutaneous fat tissue

27

Lack of thiamin in starvation leads to

digestive, visual, physical, and neurological disabilities even on refeeding

28

Negative nitrogen balance occurs when

more is excreted than consumed; in starvation, post burns victims, postp-op patients, and AIDS patients

29

What is cachexia?

extreme example of the loss of muscular and adipose tissue in terminal illness; caused in part by high levels of TNFa

30

What causes lactose intolerance?

in non-dairy consuming societies lactase production drops 90% in the first 4 years of life (populations that drink milk have mutations on chromosome 2 that prevent this reduction in lactase)

31

Vegans risk deficiencies in

B12 (peripheral neuritis, pernicious anaemia), vitamin D, riboflavin, iron, calcium, and zinc