Flashcards in Obesity and lifestyle choice Deck (15):
What is the major pathology associated with obesity?
Set point of human weight is largely determined by
What sensitivity to leptin do most obese people have?
low leptin receptor sensitivity rather than low leptin
What are the setbacks of appetite-modifying drugs?
debilitating side effects
Why do diets have limited effect?
They are opposed by a complex interaction of hormones and neurotransmitters that have evolved to make us want to eat
Most diets cannot be regarded as successful until
2 years of stable weight reduction
Fat cells are capable of varying volume by
20 fold; numbers are effectively unlimited
How long does it take to affect fat cells?
After 6mo of reduced content some cells may die
What is leptin?
cytokine produced by adipocytes
What does leptin do?
communicates to the hypothalamus that fat stores are adequate and food intake should be reduced; it stimulates increased energy expenditure to help stabilize long term body weight
How does leptin act?
on the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus; when the body has enough fat leptin stimulates production of POMC and CART which inhibit appetite; when leptin levels (fat) is low, NPY and AgRP to increase appetite
What is adiponectin?
mixture of anti-inflammatory peptide hormones secreted by adipocytes
What is the function of adiponectin?
stimulates the phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle and liver to activate FA oxidation, glucose uptake, and lactate production in muscle while decreasing gluconeogenesis in liver - reduces circulating glucose levels
Adiponectin is a marker of