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Flashcards in BMS236 CSV Deck (500)
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1

Being receptive; responsive and spontaneous Euglena show an example of a nervous system; T or F

T

2

How do Euglena show aspects of possessing a nervous system

Exhibit spontaneous swimming activity; respond to light

3

Water enters the sponge through the osculum; flows through the organism controlled by flagella and then leaves through the body wall; T or F

F – water enters via the body wall and leaves via the osculum

4

What is the name given to the cells that control water flow in sponges

Myocytes

5

Myocytes are neurons; T or F

F

6

What type of cells were likely to be the first example of neurons

Sensorimotor cells

7

Describe the type of nervous system seen in Hydra

Hydra are radially symmetrical and thus possess a nerve net rather than a central nervous system. The nerve net consists of a series on interconnected neurons but without a brain or any type of cephalisation. This does however allow Hydra to respond to physical contact as well as detect food and other chemicals

8

Hydra show examples of motor and interneurons; T or F

T

9

The nervous system seen in Hydra allows them to detect the source of a stimulus; T or F

F – they cannot detect the source

10

Neuronal cells in Hydra are derived from what tissue

Skin ectoderm

11

What type of body symmetry is seen in worms

Bilateral symmetry

12

Segmented and non-segmented worms both show cephalisation; T or F

T

13

Describe the nervous system seen in flatworms

Two nerve cords; one on each side of the body; gangliation; cephalisation and fasciculation seen at the anterior/rostral end. Commissures allow coordination of both sides of the body

14

Name an example of a segmented worm

Annelids

15

In flatworms suprapharyngeal ganglia are intimately associated with the mouth; T or F

T

16

How many neuronal and glial cells are there in C. elegans

302 neurons; 56 glia

17

Nematode worms possess dorsal; ventral; medial and lateral nerve cords; T or F

F – they possess dorsal; ventral and lateral

18

Most neurons in the nematode are derived from EMS cells; T or F

F – they are derived from AB cells

19

What is meant by the term delamination

In C.elegans the neural cells migrate into the blastoderm from the surface ectoderm

20

Describe the major features of the adult Drosophila nervous system

Bristle-socket – consists of a sensory hair cell; a socket cell; a sheath cell and a sensory neuron

21

Where is cephalisation seen in flatworms; segmented worms and insects

Anterior/rostral end; close to the pharynx

22

In worms and insects; neural precursors induced in one part of the body migrate inwards from the surface later in development; what is this process called

Delamination

23

Which gene network dictates dorsal and ventral sides of the body in insects and worms and are responsible for the developing neural regions

Dpp-sog network

24

How do these two genes/gene products interact in order for cells to acquire a neural identity

Short gastrulation (sog) binds to dpp in the extracellular matrix and prevents its binding to receptors

25

Neural cells develop where dpp is inhibited by sog; T or F

T

26

What is the name of the vertebrate homologue of dpp

BMP4

27

What is the invertebrate homologue of BMP7

Screw

28

Which vertebrate gene is responsible for the cleavage of BMP4 and what is the name of its invertebrate homologue

BMP1 and Tolloid

29

The vertebrate short gastrulation homologue is called chordin; T or F

T

30

Where would you typically find the expression of BMP antagonists

Dorsal side of the embryo