Flashcards in B.N.A. Confederation and Wars Deck (58):
What lead to political deadlock in the province of Canada?
Act of the union made it so equal representation of both sides(Canada East, Canada West) would be in the elected assembly. This caused many government decisions to be blocked by the other side.
Explain Rep by Pop..
The representation in the legislature according to population.
How did the corn laws impact British North America?
Placed a lower import duty on wheat and grain coming into Britain. British colonies now had more competition. This caused The province of Canada to fall into an economic recession.
What are two benefits to construction of a railway in B.N.A.?
-Transportation of goods from East to West.
-Open up new settlement opportunities. (Establish British presence westward.)
2 reasons why confederate(southern) states fought the union(Northern states)
-control over economic and political decision making
What is the doctrine of Manifest Destiny?
A belief that the untied states was destined by God to control all of North America
Who were the Fenians?
What was their goal?
Group of Irish immigrants dedicated to the freedom of Ireland from British control.
They believed that if they could hold the colonies ransom they could get Ireland’s freedom.
The Fenian raids helped promote....
A desire for a union among the British North American colonies.
(Needed a united defence)
What are two reasons Great Britain encouraged Confederation?
-Reduce need for financial and military support
-They believed relationship with United States would improve if B.N.A. was more Independent.
Three men involved in the great coalition and their parties?
George brown-clear grits
John A. MacDonald-Liberal-Conservative.
George Etienne Cartier-Parti Bleu
Goal of great coalition?
Creation of a union of all the British North American colonies.
What form of government was agreed upon by delegates at the Quebec conference?
A federation- a system of government where the powers of governance are divided between federal, provincial, territorial or state governments.
Name given to the constitution presented by Canada East, Canada west, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia?
British North American Act
Date the dominion of Canada was created?
July 1 1867
Who were the loyalists?
How many migrated North?
People from the 13 colonies who wanted to stay loyal to Britain.
~100 000 settles in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Quebec.
When and what was the constitutional act?
An act that recognized English and French as two dominant groups.These groups were separated into upper(Ontario) and lower(Quebec) Canada.
Governor General appointed to oversee both groups. Lieutenant governors looked after individual groups and choose their own two councils.
What started the War of 1812?
-Britain cut off trade from America to France because if their own European war.
-Britain took some Americans and used them for their own army.
On July 12 1812 What occurred leading to the war?
General Hull invaded upper Canada with 2000 men, occupied sandwich(Windsor) then retreated to fort Detroit.
How did the British respond to the attack at upper Canada?
Sir Isaac Brock joined forces with Tecumseh(leader of Shawnee)
-General hull feared the First Nations.
-Tecumseh led his men to run around Fort Detroit and appear as must larger of an army.
-General Hull surrendered even though his opponent was 1/3 his army.
How did Laura Secord change the war?
After hearing the Americans plans for attack she left her family and ran to inform the British. After becoming lost in the woods, First Nations people help her find her way. She informs the British and helps them get the upper hand.
How does the war of 1812 end?
1814-In a stalemate.
Treaty of Ghent showed neither side made any political, economic, or territorial gain.
What are some things that occurred post war of 1812?
-Population doubles in 100 years
-Abolition of slavery
-establishment of border between America and Canada
-Middle class forms
What elite groups ruled upper and lower Canada?
Upper Canada ruled by Family Compact
Lower Camada ruled by Chateau clique
Who were the reformers?
Who were two of the biggest leaders? What did these people do to spread the news?
People hoping to gain a responsible government that listened and did what the majority of the people wanted.
William Lyon Mackenzie(upper Canada)
Louis-Joseph Papineau(lower Canada) used newspaper to expose injustices.
Describe the events of the rebellion for responsible government....
-1834:Try to get 92 resolutions passed in lower Canada(rejected three years later by British government)
-7th report in grievances(sent by upper Canada)denied.
-Radicals group forms and splits the reformers. (Violence)
-William Lyon Mackenzie gets clan with pitchforks against the militia.
-100’s imprisoned, many hung.
Who is Lord Durham? What was his job?
Lord Durham was a Governor General of Canada sent to recommend solutions for the problems that caused rebellions.
What were Durham’s conclusions?
-rebellions in upper Canada were because of the Family Compact(he despised). His solution was for a more responsible government that would responsive to the wishes of the majority.
-rebellions in lower Canada caused by divisions between French and English. His solution was to merge both Canada’s together.
When was The Act Of The Union created? What was it all about?
1841- United upper and lower Canada into one province of Canada. The province would have 1 government system, and one language (English).
Act divided into Canada East and Canada West with equal representation.
What is bill 22?
The official language act -1974
-All public institutes must conduct business in French and English in Quebec
-all businesses must have French name to advertise
-all public institutes must conduct business in French (also contracts)
-immigrant children must attend French school
What is bill 101?
Charter of the French language 1976
-only language used in government, judiciary schools, advertising, business.
What was the population result after bill 22 and bill 101?
~400000 anglophone left Quebec between 1974-1994
What is the goal of Partí Quebecois and who was a major supporter of this party?
To make Quebec an independent state that would control its laws, polices, and taxes, but remain linked to Canada’s economy.
René Lévesque-Quebec premier
What was the poll outcome of the Referendum on sovereignty?
Conclusion: Quebec would not be an individual stare in all areas but economy.
What prime minster wanted to patriate the constitution?
What were the opinions of this from Quebec and other provinces?
TRUDEAU-wanted constitution to be a Canadian document, not British. (Couldn’t change the constitution if it’s Britain’s property)
Quebec- did not want to have interests constrained by a majority anglophone province.
Other provinces didn’t want Quebec to have a privileged position in Confederation.
What controversial thing did Trudeau want to put into the constitution?
What was a worry associated with this?
A charter of rights
Other provinces worried individual rights will dominate over the whole.
Who and what were the gang of eight?
Eight provinces against Trudeau’s proposal giving Canada control over constitution and of adding a charter of rights to the constitution. They even go to British government to stop charter.
Describe the kitchen accord?
-Trudeau sees there’s getting no where with constitution issue
-gang of eight dissolves
-John Chrétien and 2 crest proposal and gather 9/10 premiers in hotel pantry.(not Quebec;different hotel)
-They proposal is to go ahead with charter but it will not trump the law.
-French guy mad he wasn’t invited(calls it the night of the long knives)
What date did the Queen sign over the constitution?
Who never signed the constitution?
April 17 1982
Quebec refuses to sign(still mad about not being invited to pantry party)
What were the issues with the natural resources in the western provinces? When were they fixed?
Original four provinces(Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia) have control over their provinces natural resources. Newer provinces resources are controlled by the government. In 1930 the Natural resources transfer act switched control back to the province.
What did the Canadian Government do about much of Alberta’s oil being owned by foreign companies?
-Natural Energy Program
-transferred lots of oil industry royalties from provincial to federal.
-Created Petrol Canada-25% ownership of every new arctic and offshore well.
What was the CF-18 Fighter Jet bid?
1 billion dollar contract to maintain fighter jets goes between Winnipeg’s Bristol air(cheaper, superior) and Montreal’s Canadair.
Brain Mulroney gives contract to Montreal. This causes 100 Manitobans to lose their jobs, taxes go up to pay for improvements to Canadair facility.
What was the deal with the Canadian Wheat board?
The Canadian wheat board was a voluntary program to help farmers market their wheat and stabilize prices.
-became mandatory for prairie farmers to join.
What was the Meech Lake accord?
-Brian Mulroney wanted Quebec to be apart of the constitution.
-Accord wants Quebec to be a distinct society with distinct language and culture.
-10 premiers meet at Meech Lake, Ottawa and agree to sign.
-provinces given three years to approve-premiers changed in election.
What was the down fall of the Meech Lake Accord?
-Westerners didn’t want Quebec to have privileged Vito power.
-Changed in government meant new opinions
-during the last meeting Elijah Harper(only aboriginal member of legislation assembly) voted against.
What was Quebec’s response to the fail of the Meech Lake Accord?
Happy-didn’t feel they were asking for enough power.
Who are the Bloc Québécois?
Federal Quebec party committed to Quebec’s separation from Canada. (Became official offence with 49% of Quebec vote.
What was the Charlottetown Accord?
-Mulroney remained determined to bring Quebec into constitution.
-opens new rounds of constitution discussion (1991 Canada rounds)
-Recognized Quebec as a distinct society and promised greater powers for the provinces.
-recognized aboriginal rights to self government
-National Referendum called
What were the poll results of the Charlottetown accord?
Quebec still not in constitution
What were the results of the Quebec referendum of 1995?
What were the rallies in Montreal for around the Quebec Referendum if 1995?
100 000 Canadians came to say “don’t leave”
What did the cancellation of the reciprocity treaty(along with repealing the corn laws) lead British North Americans to realize?
That their economic fortunes were tied to the polices if other nations.
Why did the American government look at Great Britain suspiciously after the American civil war?
Because they declared neutrality, however build blockade runners to sneak cotton out from the south. Britain did little to stop this.
Following the war of 1812, the middle class developed why/how?
1 million people immigrated from Britain and American colonies. Middle class included tradesmen, clothes makers, and school builders.
What happened with slavery in Canada?
Abolishment in 1834 in North America.
(Slaves from south came to Canada through underground railway.)
What is the 49th parallel? When was it developed?
Border between Canada and America.
First border was from Lake of the woods to Rocky Mountain border.
Then Maine and New Brunswick.
Finally from Rockies to West coast.
What is an oligarchy?
Small ruling class
What were the rebellions if 1837 about?
Wanting a responsible government.