Flashcards in First nations, Métis, and HBC Deck (67):
Describe how First Nations believe North America was created.
People began to fight and argue, The creator (Kitchi-Manitou) purified the earth with a flood.
Only Nanaboozhoo survived, but holding onto a log. He shared the log with the birds and animals.
Took turns swimming to bottom trying to get a piece of Earth. A muskrat finally got a piece of Earth but died. Nanaboozhoo packed Earth on a turtles back and North America came.
What is the spiritual worldview of First Nations people?
There’s an interconnection between all parts of the universe.
Everything has a spirit
Animals give up there life for human life.
How do First Nations people view land?
There is no ownership- people are just caretakers if land.
Resources were viewed as gifts from creator
What based most of First Nations languages?
What are some core values of First Nations people?
What is oral tradition?
Passing down art, knowledge, ideas and culture orally
What is social organization?
What are the traditions method of social organization?
A relationship between and among individuals
-Kinship communities (blood relatives)
-Roles and Contributions
-Justice and Conflict resolution
What Is Michif?
A language made up of English, French, Cree, and Ojibway spoken by Métis
What is the unofficial Métis anthem?
The red river jig
Name some roles of Métis woman.
-Work at trading posts
-Cleaned and tanned hides
How did the Métis change Buffalo hunting?
Hundreds of Métis hunters got closer to the herd on horseback, select an animal and fire at close range.
Two organized hunts a year
What was the significance of the red river cart?
It could float
Who were the two men who asked French king to set up new trading post?
What was the Kings decision?
Medard Des Groseillier and Pierre Radison
French king put them in jail and fined them for not having proper trapping license.
Who do the French men turn to next?
What was his decision?
King Charles of England
Sent Nonsuch and Eaglet to North America. Eaglet doesn’t make it.
Fort sent up in James Bay creates a monopoly over Rupert’s land.
What did First Nations receive in the ritual of exchange if gifts?
What did the Europeans receive?
Metal tools, guns, alcohol (last)
Furs, knowledge of land, and technology
How did the French trade so well?
Went into First Nations communities directly.
Also able to marry First Nations woman and have family.
(HBC MEMBERS NOT ALLOWED ORIGINALLY)
How did the French take York Factory?
In 1697 king of France sent fleet of ships. All but the Pelican were trapped in ice. The British couldn’t tell how many ships there was in the fog. 1 French ship took over York against three British ships.
What year did the French give up York in the treaty of Utrecht?
1712- French gave up claims to Hudson’s Bay Area and focused on North west
What is the overall goal of the North West Company?
To find the west and reach Pacific Ocean
Describe the Selkirk Settlement
In 1812 Thomas Douglas of Scotland receives title of Lord Selkirk. Buy shares in HBC and get gets land in Red River Valley. Hires Miles Macdonell to help with First immigrants.
Immigrants told not to interact with First Nations
Who helped the Selkirk settlers in their first year?
Gave them food and survival skills
Who bans pemmican production and starts a war?
What were the advantages and disadvantages to the Northwest and Hudson’s Bay companies?
Hudson’s Bay: Rich with shareholders, but has less fur. Able to lower to a price NWC can’t compete with.
Northwest Company: Has lots of furs, but no financial backing.
What year do HBC and NWC merge?
1821 under Hudson’s Bay Company
What were the reasons for the decline of the fur trade?
Less demand as styles changed
Beaver nearly extinct
How does the decline of fur trade affect the Métis people?
What did they turn to?
Fur trade was their main source of sustainability.
Turned to Buffalo to make buffalo robes.
What caused the decline of the buffalo hunt?
Buffalo nearly extinct
Railway changed migration patterns
How did the Fur trade affect First Nations?
-Not used to alcohol (social problems)
-if a battle broke out, the group with guns won
-Christians missionaries sent to education First Nations children.
-Europeans brought diseases.
-Desperation for Furs created many conflicts.
What happened with the battle of seven oaks?
Roger Semple (replacement for Miles Mac) and 60 men fight against Métis. In 15 minutes 20 simple men and 1 Métis man died.
Cuthbert Grant demands surrender of Fort Douglas (HBC)
Before the Confederation of Manitoba what provinces were in the dominion of Canada?
Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick
Who were the Anti French, Anti Catholic man known as?
Who was the man who didn’t wait or ignored government orders to stop land transfer until “issues” with Métis were sorted out?
(Claimed Rupert’s land in the name of the dominion of Canada)
Who were apart of the convention of 40?
(Red river community members)20 English men, 20 French men who set up provisional government with Riel as there president.
Who did Riel sentence to death? Why?
Thomas Scott for attempting to take over Fort Garry
Why did surveyors need to survey land?
(What transfer occurred?)
1869 HBC sold Rupert’s land to the Dominion of Canada
What did the Manitoba Act guarantee about land?
Guaranteed land to those who already owned it
What was the reign of terror?
Dominion sent Milita force to Red River after Manitoba Act negotiations. Force was made up of many Orangeman who were already upset about Thomas Scott. Milita beat, threatened, harassed, raped, and committed arson against Métis. (Riel flees to America)
Describe some key events in Riel life after fleeing...
Depression- 2 Quebec asylums
Moved to Montana- US citizen
Married- 2 kids
Became a teacher
What year was the Northwest Resistance?
A year before the The resistance what did Riel do to gain a better perspective?
Visiting various aboriginal and non aboriginal communities to gain priorities to make petition
When and what was the battle at Duck Lake?
March 26 NWMP and Métis meet up and fight for control over Fort Carlton. 12 men under command of Superintendent Crozier and 5 Métis men die. Police forced to retreat
Métis In search of food and supplies
Wandering Spirit led a group to raid HBC stores at what location? Why?
Frog lake, in search of food, ammunition, arms
Describe the battle of Batoche
May 9 Middleton and force of 850 laid siege upon 300 Métis and First Nations at Batoche. 3 days later Métis forced to surrender when they run out of ammunition.
How did Woman play a key role in the Battle of Batoche?
Supply men with food, medical care, and made ammunition
What date did Riel surrender?
What month did the Resistance end?
May 15 1885
Describe Riel’s trial
July 6 1885 -Charged with High treason. The jury was made of 6 English Protestant’s (against Riel’s lawyers request). Riel was told to plead insanity, but chose not to. On November 16 1885 Riel was hanged.
Treason for rebellion against government
Executed Thomas Scott
What were some issues with Métis trying to farm?
Scrips not given by government.
Bad land given, government policies too hard to keep up with bad land and not enough money.
Where were Métis people forced to live?
Road allowances (small shanty communities between surveyed land.
When were the peace and friendship treaties signed? Who signed them? What was the agreement?
1725 and 1779 by British and First Nations.
To share land peacefully
Were Métis apart of peace and friendship treaties?
No! They were expecting to choose European or First Nations life
when was Treaty one signed
August 3rd 1871
What did Treaty one promise Reserves would be like for First Nations?
-White man will not come on land
-Free to hunt, fish on untitled land
-AS LONG AS THE SUN SHALL SHINE
Why did First Nations sign treaties?
-desperate to secure land for future generations
What did the written Treaty not include that the First Nations believed would be because of oral agreements?
When did the Indian Act come into play? What was the goal? What were some parts of it?
1876- To assimilate and control First Nations
-consumption of alcohol prohibited
-First Nations leadership discouraged
-Indian agents given authority to manage reserves
How could one get rid of Indian status?
-Marry a white man
-join clergy of military
In 1920 Residential schools were mandatory for First Nations youth. What were the four core subjects in Residential schools?
Reading, writing, math, Christianity
What did Inuit students have to wear? Why?
Tags with numbers because their names were too hard to pronounce
How many total First Nations gave up Indian status?
What decade were status Indians able to vote?
Status Indians were able to.....
-live on reserve
-Extended hunting and fishing seasons
-free post secondary education
-fewer firearm restrictions
-exempt from federal and provincial taxes on reserves
What were band councils?
Made up of chief and council members elected for three year terms. (Elections totally new to First Nations people)
Describe the pass system
Indian agents were placed on reserves to act as police, government, land distributed, and decided everything that happened on the reserve.
First Nations could not leave without permission from Indian agent.
How many total treaties were there?
When was the Manitoba Act passed?
What did it include?
July 15 1870
-guaranteed land to those who owned it
-self governing province
-Government support to denominational schools
-Métis and country born children will receive land
What is the gist of the Truth and Reconciliation
-our land Is ours
-Education if Aboriginal history
-Funding for schools, sports, legal system