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A Level Chemistry AQA: Physical > Bonding > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bonding Deck (30)
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1

Define an ionic bond

The electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions formed by electron transfer

2

Define covalent bond

A shared pair of electrons

3

Define a dative covalent bond

The shared pair of electrons in the covalent bond come from only one of the bonding atoms

4

Define a metallic bond

The electrostatic force of attraction between the positive metal ions and the delocalised electrons

5

What are the 3 factors which affect the strength of a metallic bond and state which ones lead to a stronger metallic bond?

Number of protons (more=stronger bond)
Number of delocalised electrons per atom (more=stronger bond)
Size of atom (smaller=stronger bond),

6

What are 4 examples of macromolecular covalent structures?

Diamond
Graphite
Silicon Dioxide
Silicon

7

What’s the solubility like of ionic compounds in water?

Good

8

What’s the solubility like of simple molecular compounds in water?

Poor

9

What’s the conductivity like of ionic compounds when solid, and why?

Poor as Ions can’t moved

10

What’s the conductivity like of ionic compounds when molten, and why?

Good as ions can move

11

What’s the name and bond angle of the shape with 4 bonding pairs and 0 lone pairs

Tetrahedral and 109.5°

12

What’s the name and bond angle of the shape with 3 bonding pairs and 1 lone pairs

Trigonal Pyramidal and 107°

13

What’s the name and bond angle of the shape with 2 bonding pairs and 2 lone pairs

Bent and 104.5°

14

What’s the name and bond angle of the shape with 5 bonding pairs and 0 lone pairs

Trigonal Bipyramidal and 120° and 90°

15

What’s the name and bond angle of the shape with 6 bonding pairs and 0 lone pairs

Octahedral and 90°

16

Define electronegativity

Relative tendency of an atom in a covalent bond in a molecule to attract electrons in a covalent bond to itself

17

What is the scale where electronegativity is measured in?

Paulin Scale

18

What factors affect electronegativity?

Number of protons
Electron shielding
Distance from the nucleus (atomic radius)

19

What is the most electronegative element?

Fluorine

20

What value does the most electronegative element have on the electronegativity scale?

4.0

21

Why is CCl4 non-polar whilst CH3Cl polar?

CH3Cl is asymmetrical due to the presence of C-Cl bond which is polar

22

In polar covalent bonds what slight charge does carbon and hydrogen atoms tend to have?

Delta Positive

23

What makes a compound purely covalent?

Small electronegative difference between elements

24

What makes a compound mostly ionic?

Large electronegative difference between elements

25

What is the relationship between symmetry and polarity

Symmetrical are non-polar

26

Which substances show van der waals forces?

Molecular compounds

27

Which substances do not show van der waals forces?

Ionic compounds

28

When do permanent dipole-dipole forces occur?

When there is a difference in electronegativity between elements/elements that are polar

29

When does hydrogen bonding occur and what must be present?

Between hydrogen and either fluorine, oxygen and nitrogen. There must be also be a lone-pair of electrons.

30

Why does H2O, NH3 and HF all have anomalously high boiling points?

They all show hydrogen bonding