Bone Path II Quiz 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bone Path II Quiz 1 Deck (263)
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1

What are the categories of bone disease?

Congenital, Arthritis, Tumor, Blood, Infection, Trauma, Endocrine, Soft Tissues (CATBITES)

2

What are some clues to have a preliminary analysis of bone disease? (7)

1) Age 2) Sex 3) Race 4) History 5) Number of lesions 6) Symmetry of lesions 7) Systems involved

3

what are the 4 different types of imaging modalities?

1) Plain film 2) Computed tomography (CT) 3) MRI 4) Bone scan

4

what type of imaging is the 1st choice for osseous lesions/

Plain Film

5

How much bone loss is required to be seen on the film?

30-50%

6

Are CT often used for tumor, infection and arthritis?

no

7

What is the difference between CT and plain film?

Same basic imaging as plain film, more detail

8

What does CT detect? (3)

1) Detects more subtle osseous changes (lytic destruction, cortical integrity) 2) Detects subtle periosteal response 3) Detects subtle calcification

9

Which typ of imaging provides excellent evaluation of marrow?

MRI

10

Does MRI provide good evaluations of cortex and trabeculae?

No, poor eval of cortex and trabeculae

11

What are some properties of MRI? (5)

1) Better evaluation of extent of lesion 2) more information regarding matrix 3) Visualize soft tissue mass 4) Evaluate larger areas 5) Evaluate impact on surrounding structures

12

What is another name for a bone scan?

Radionuclide imaging; scintigraphy

13

What are "hot spots" on a bone scan?

areas of increased uptake (black) where areas of increased metabolic activity are found

14

are bone scans specific or sensitive?

very sensitive (3-5% bone loss) but not specific

15

Do bone scans provide good anatomic detail?

No, poor anatomic detail

16

what are the aspects of a bone to evaluate? (5)

1) Shape 2) Size 3) Cortex 4) Trabeculae 5) Overall radiographic density

17

What are the aspects of osseous anatomy to evaluate? (11)

1) cortex 2) periosteum 3) endosteum 4) cancellous bone 5) trabeculae 6) cellular marrow 7) fat and hematopoietic tissue 8) Epiphysis 9) Metaphysis 10) Diaphysis 11) Physis

18

what are the 6 types of tumor types?

1) Metatstatic 2) Primary 3) benign 4) malignant 5) Quasimalignant 6) Tumor-like processes

19

what is a malignant tumor?

A tumor that may metastasize

20

What is a quasimalignant tumor?

Giant cell, some are benign, some are malignant

21

Which types of tumors would you refer to an internist?

Metastasis and multiple myeloma (may go to oncologist/ rheumatologist)

22

Which types of tumors or conditions would you refer to an orthopedic surgeon?

Primary malignancies, painful benign lesions, lesions with significant risk of complications (pathologic fractures, effect on growth, malignant trasformation) and infection

23

Which types of tumors would you document and not refer?

Asymptomatic, benign lesions without significant risk of complications

24

what are the 12 aspects to analyze a lesion?

1) Skeletal location
2) Position within the bone
3) Site of origin
4) Joint changes
5) Shape
6) Size
7) Margination
8) Cortical integrity
9) Behavior of the lesion
10) Matrix
11) Periosteal response
12) Soft tissue changes

25

when do most mets occur?

In patients >40

26

when are most primary benign cancers found in patients?

In patients < 30

27

Are tumors more common in males or females?

Males

28

Is race usually a helpful differentiation for neoplasms? What is the exception?

No, race is not often helpful with neoplasm, Ewing's sarcoma is exception since it is less common in blacks

29

What are some red flags for cancers? (5)

1) weight loss 2)fatigue 3) malaise 4) recurrent infection 5) pain pattern

30

What are some lab findings found with cancers?

Increased ESR or CRP; changes on CBC; change in serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, total protein; change in acid phosphatase; protein electrophoresis