Bone Pathology Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bone Pathology Part 1 Deck (61):
1

Where is bone marrow is located at?

Medullary Cavity

2

Periosteum -> ______ bone

Endostetum -> ______ bone

Periosteum -> outside the bone

Endostetum -> inside the bone

3

Term referred as composed of extracellular matrix containing
primarily glycoproteins and collagen fibers

Osteoid

4

Osteoid undergoes mineralization, by deposition of ______, to form bone

Calcium hydroapatite (CHAP) crystals

5

Bone matrix contain growth factors that help in what 3 bone settings?

1) Bone development

2) Bone modeling

3) Bone remodeling

6

What 4 types of cellular elements in bone?

1) Osteoblasts

2) Osteocytes

3) Lining cells (inactive osteoblasts)

4) Osteoclasts

7

What are 2 types of bone based on maturity and their pattern?

1) Woven bone ->  Immature bone

  • -Collagen fibers in woven bone are in crisscross (woven) pattern microscopically.

2) Lamellar bone ->  Mature bone.

  • -Collagen fibers are in a parallel pattern.

8

What are 2 types of bone growth and where does it occur?

1) Intramembranous ossification

  • Occurs within “membranes” of primitive mesenchymal tissue
  • Flat bones of the skull

2) Endochondral ossification

  • Occurs in majority of bones of theskeleton.
  • Bone develops from hyaline cartilage and replaced by osseous tissue in the ossification centers
  • Limbs, vertebral column, pelvis, base of skull

9

Term referred to membranous appositional growth is normal but interstitial growth of cartilage is abnormal leading to premature closure of growth plates, which decreases length of long bones

Chondrodysplasia

10

Chondrodysplasia is seen in what animals?

  • Beef breeds: Angus, Hereford
  • Dexter bulldog (congenital lethal chondrodysplasia)
  • Chondrodystrophic dog breeds (localized chondrodysplasias)
    • Dachshund, pug, basset hound, bulldogs, boxers

11

What is the diagnosis?

Congenital Lethal Chondrodysplasia (Dexter Bulldog)

12

Localized skeletal dysplasia or degenerative joint disease affecting axial skeleton is called what Growth and Developmental Abnormality?

Cervico-vertebral stenotic myelopathy (Wobbler’s Syndrome):

13

The syndrome results in ____ or  _____ compression of the cervical spinal cord (SC) by abnormal cervical vertebrae.

Dynamic or Static

Dynamic -> Neck is flexed

Static -> Doesn’t matter position of the neck

14

What is the diagnosis?

Cervico-vertebral stenotic myelopathy (Wobbler’s Syndrome):

15

What is Osteopetrosis?

  • Inherited disease caused by osteoclast failure to reabsorb the primary spongiosa
  • This failure results in an increased bone density and lack of medullary (bone marrow) spaces.

16

What is this Growth and Developmental
Abnormality called?

Osteopetrosis

17

Osteopetrosis often results to? (2 things)

1) Osteosclerosis (increased bone density)

2) Aplastic anemia

18

What is Congenital cortical hyperostosis of pigs?

Limbs (primarily forelimbs) look swollen from excessive deposition of radiating trabeculae on periostal surface and blocking local lymphatic circulation

19

Wordbank: Polymelia, Amelia, Phocomelia, Hemimelia, Micromelia, Polydactylia, Syndactylia

 

Term for Absence of distal half of a limb

Hemimelia

20

Wordbank: Polymelia, Amelia, Phocomelia, Hemimelia, Micromelia, Polydactylia, Syndactylia

 

Term used for Supernumerary digits

Polydactylia

21

Wordbank: Polymelia, Amelia, Phocomelia, Hemimelia, Micromelia, Polydactylia, Syndactylia

 

Term used for absence of proximal portion(s) of a limb(s)

Phocomelia

22

Wordbank: Polymelia, Amelia, Phocomelia, Hemimelia, Micromelia, Polydactylia, Syndactylia

 

Term used for absence of a limb(s)

Amelia

23

Wordbank: Polymelia, Amelia, Phocomelia, Hemimelia, Micromelia, Polydactylia, Syndactylia

 

Term used for fusion of digits

Syndactylia

24

Wordbank: Polymelia, Amelia, Phocomelia, Hemimelia, Micromelia, Polydactylia, Syndactylia

 

Term used for abnormally small/short limb(s)

Micromelia

25

Wordbank: Polymelia, Amelia, Phocomelia, Hemimelia, Micromelia, Polydactylia, Syndactylia

 

Term used for supernumerary limbs

Polymelia

26

Wordbank: Kyphoscoliosis, Kyphosis, Lordosis, Scoliosis

 

Term used for lateral deviation of vertebral column

Scoliosis

27

Wordbank: Kyphoscoliosis, Kyphosis, Lordosis, Scoliosis

 

Term used for dorsal deviation of vertebral column

Kyphosis

28

Wordbank: Kyphoscoliosis, Kyphosis, Lordosis, Scoliosis

 

Term used for ventral deviation of vertebral column

Lordosis

29

Wordbank: Kyphoscoliosis, Kyphosis, Lordosis, Scoliosis

 

Term used for dorso-lateral deviation of vertebral column

Kyphoscoliosis

30

Angular Limb Deformities:

Which is which?

 

31

What are Metabolic Bone Diseases also known as?

Osteodystrophies

32

What are 4 etiologies for Metabolic Bone Diseases?

1) Nutritional

2) Hormonal

3) Disuse

4) Toxic

33

What are the 5 main types of Metabolic Bone Diseases?

1) Osteoporosis

2) Rickets

3) Osteomalacia

4) Fibrous Osteodystrophy

5) Toxic Osteodystrophy

34

What is Osteoporosis charactericterized by?

Osteopenia (decrease in amount of bone tissue)

35

What are 3 etiologies of Osteoporosis?

1) Nutritional

2) Aging

3) Disuse

36

What is the diagnosis?

Osteoporosis/Osteopenia

37

Rickets affects young growing animals

True or False?

True

38

What is the pathogenesis of Rickets?

Defective calcification of osteoid and defective endochondral ossification

39

What is the etiology of Rickets?

Multifactorial but involves vitamin D or P deficiency

40

What are gross descriptions of Rickets?

  • Thickening of growth plates with uncalcified cartilage extending into the metaphysis
  • Enlarged ends of long bones and enlargement of costochondral junctions (rachitic rosary)
  • Weight-bearing long bones may become bowed

41

Rickets was the first "air pollution disease"

True or False?

True

(Sunlight is the best prevention and treatment of Rickets)

42

What is the diagnosis?

Rickets

43

Osteomalacia affects young growing animals

True or False?

False

Affects grown adult animals (closed growth plates)

44

What is Fibrous Osteodystrophy charactericterized by?

Extensive bone resorption and replacement by fibrous CT and poorly mineralized immature bone

45

Secondary hyperparathyroidism is the most common cause of Fibrous Osteodystrophy

True or False?

True

46

Primary Hyperparathyroidism has 2 underlying causes: Nutritional & Renal

True or False?

False

Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

Nutritional -> seen in horses
Renal -> seen in dogs

47

What is the diagnosis?

Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (Nutritional)

"Bran disease", "Big head"

48

What is the diagnosis?

Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (Renal)

"Rubber jaw"

49

What are 3 types of Toxic Osteodystrophies?

1) Lead poisoning

2) Fluoride poisoning

3) Hypervitaminosis A

50

_____ and _____ are marked sensitive to excess fluoride
leading to soft dark-brown discolored teeth that easily
wear down

Ameloblasts and odontoblasts

51

What is the diagnosis?

Toxic Osteodystrophy by lead poisoning ("lead-line")

52

Cats that consume high contents of bovine livers (high vitamin A content) for a long period of time will lead to what?

Deforming cervical spondylosis

53

What are 2 terms used for bone reaction to injury leading to necrosis?

1) Osteonecrosis

2) Osteosis

54

Term used for piece of necrotic bone isolated from remaining viable bone

Sequestrum

55

Term used for walling off sequestrum results in forming a layer of granulation tissue and reactive bone

Involucrum

56

Term used for bone shattered into tiny pieces

Comminuted

57

Term used for fracture of trabeculae without external deformation of cortical bone

Microfracture/Infarction

58

Term used for pull of ligament/muscle tendon at its insertion into bone

Avulsed

59

Type of bone fracture in which normal bone broken by force

Traumatic

60

Type of bone fracture in which abnormal bone broken by minimal trauma or normal weight bearing

Pathologic

61

What are 4 types of complications associated with bone fractures?

1) Bone necrosis and formation of a sequestrum

2) Nonunion fracture

3) Osteomyelitis

4) Cachexia