Bone profile, Calcium and Phosphate Flashcards Preview

Biochemistry and Haemotology > Bone profile, Calcium and Phosphate > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bone profile, Calcium and Phosphate Deck (25)
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1

What is the role of the osteoclast

To break down old bone

2

What is the role of the osteoblast

to build new bone

3

What is the main substance that makes up bone

Hydroxyapatite
made up of calcium, magnesium, sodium and bicarbonate as well as phosphorous

4

How is phosphate metabolism maintained

Phosphate homeostasis is a balance between GI uptake, renal excretion/ absorption and movement in and out of bone.

5

What is the relationship between calcium and phosphate - in health

When Calcium increases, phosphate decreases - and vice versa

6

What symptoms does hyperphosphatemia present with

non - likely to show signs of hypocalcemia

7

What are the symptoms of hypophosphatemia

when levels fall below 0.3 muscle weakness may occur, rhabdomyolysis, confusion seizures and rarely coma. Haemolytic anaemia may also present

8

Which 2 hormones control the concentration of calcium

PTH - parathyroid hormone and calcitonin

9

What role does vit D play in calcium homeostasis

essential for the utilisation of calciu,
usually, UV light is required in order for the precursors to be made into Vit D. many people are deficient,

The main action is to stimulate the gut to absorb calcium from dietary food

10

When is calcium normally evaluated

Testing for bone disease, parathyroid issues and kidney impairment.

11

If a patient has a raised PTH level what will happen to the calcium and phosphate

Calcium will rise and phosphate will fall.

12

In renal disease what changes will be expected

phosphate levels will be high and calcium levels will be low

13

What causes a rise in both phosphate and calcium

Boney Mets and bone disease

14

Which protein transports 40% of all calcium within the blood

Albumin

15

What relationship will having a raised albumin have on calcium

As calcium is transported within the albumin, the serum calcium will be significantly higher than normal as a proportion

16

Abnormally low albumin will have what effect on serum calcium

proportionally the serum calcium will be lower due to having less available albumin

17

What effect does pH have on calcium

having a raised pH will lower the ionised calcium and acidosis will increase the ionised calcium

18

What is the mechanism of hypercalcemia

When calcium is transported into the ECF from the ICF.

19

What are the primary causes of hypercalcemia

Cancer and primary hyperparathyroidism

20

What are the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia

weakness, depression, lethargy, nausea and vomiting, anorexia and renal stones.

21

What is the treatment options available for hypercalcemia

fluid resuscitation, diuretics, calcitonin, denosumab, bisphosphonates

22

What is a paraneoplastic syndrome

A paraneoplastic syndrome is a symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.
It is mediated by hormones or cytokines excreted by cancer cells or by an immune response against cancer.

23

What is hypocalcemia and when does it occur

Occurs when there is a net efflux of calcium from the ECF and may be seen in malignant disease, rhabdomyolysis, acute pancreatitis, sepsis, shock and in chronic renal disease.

24

Signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia

paraesthesia, muscle cramps, laryngospasm, tetany and seizures. Cardiac manifestations may include a prolonged QT interval which may progress to VT or heart block

25

What are the treatment options available for hypocalcemia

Treatment is cause specific. Fluid, acid-base and other electrolytes are managed - supplements either oral or parenteral can be employed.