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Biochemistry and Haemotology > Clotting > Flashcards

Flashcards in Clotting Deck (60)
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1

What is haemopoeis regulated by?

Interleukin 1,3,5,6
Stem cell factor
Erythropoietin
Thrombopetin

2

What are haemotinics

Products that are required for the formation of red blood cells.
The main ones being folate, but b 12, and iron

3

Where is the bodies iron found

70% haemoglobin
25% ferritin

4

Why are patients normally deficient in iron

Inadequate oral intake
Inadequate absorption
Haemorrhage

5

What does ferritin do

Acute phase protein
Transport iron in a none toxic form

6

What is folate used for

For nation if dba and rna
And amino acid metabolism

7

Cause of macrocytic anaemia

Folate deficiency
Vitamin b12 deficiency

8

What is renal anaemia

CKD leading to a lack of erythropoietin, leading to a lack of RBC production in the bone marrow. Normochromic and normocytic anaemia.
Uraemia may also cause platelet dysfunction.

9

Symptoms of Vit b12 deficiency

Tiredness, lethargy, feeling faint, becoming breathless easily. Sore mouth and beef steak tongue.

10

What causes Vit b12 deficiency

Pernicious anaemia - most common cause - autoimmune in nature. Can be detected - antibodies to confirm the diagnosis.
Stomach or GI issues leading to lack of absorption
Lack of Vit b12 in the diet - such as vegans.

11

Treatment options for Vit b12 Deficiency

B12 injection - 1 every 2-4 days and then one every 3 months

12

Define Polycythemia

Increase in the level of RBCs/Hb.
Relative - due to reduction in plasma volume
Primary - chronic resp disease, congenital heart disease, working at high altitude.
Secondary - some renal disorders - Renal Cell carcinoma - increased levels of erythropoietin

13

`What is Polycythemia Rubra Vera

Primary Polycythemia - myeloproliferative disorder
Causes itching, enlarged spleen, blood clots and bleeding.
Neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, lethargy and visual disturbances due to the increased size of red cells.

14

What are the 4 main blood groups

A, B, AB and O

15

What antibodies and antigens are present in AB and O blood

AB - A and B antigens and no antibodies
O - no antigens and anti-A and anti B antibodies
AB - universal recipient and O is the universal donor

16

Which is the most important Rhesus antigen

D - that gives the blood positive or negative after the blood group
Others include C,c,D E, e

17

What is the clinical significance of the Rhesus status of women of childbearing age

HDFN - Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn
If Rh D positive blood is given to an Rh-negative woman, from either transfusion or if the mother has developed these alloantibodies then

18

What are the two main types of white blood cells

Mono-nuclear cells and granulocytes

19

Whicch of the white blood cells are classed as phagocytes

neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils and basophills

20

What do lymphocytes do?

Help to identify the antigen - antigen presenting cells.
Create a memory - antibodies so the body is able to fight further infections

21

What does an increase in atypical cells represent

potentially leukemia

22

Define Leucopenia

Reduction in white cell count - maybe specific - neutropenia, lymphopenia or eosinopenia

23

Define Leucocytosis

Increase in the number of white cells, neutrophillia, lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, monocytosis and basophilia

24

An increase in WCC would suggest

infections, systemic illness, allergy, inflammation and certain types of cancer such as leukaemia

25

An increase in WCC would suggest

certain medication - such as chemotherapy, auto-immune disease, viral or some severe bacterial infections, bone marrow failure, liver disease and alcohol excess

26

What would a Neutrophillia suggest

Bacterial or viral infection

27

Lymphocyctosis would suggest

elevated in some infections such as glandular fever, lymphocytic leukaemia,

28

Monocytosis would suggest

raised in bacterial infection, TB, Malaria, monocytic leukaemia, chronic UC and regional enteritis

29

Eosinophilia would suggest

parasitic infection, asthma or allergy

30

Basophilic would suggest

hypersensitivity reactions, certain allergens and parasites