Flashcards in Bones Deck (200):
proximal row of tarsal bones
calcaneus and talus
for these bones, the plantar surface is also called the distal surface
each of the tarsal bones is a ...
short, irregular bone
found between the proximal and distal row
the width of the calcaneus is about the same as the height, both are about ______ of its length
the dorsal surface of the calcaneus is _______ from front to back and is ___ from side to side.
the anterior third of the calcaneus contains what two facets?
anterior and middle - they articulate with the talus
what facet on the calcaneus is supported by the sustentaculum tali?
deep depression on the anterior part of the dorsal surface of the calcaneus located between the middle and posterior facet
calcaneal sulcus - the calcaneal sulcus combinew with a deep groove on the plantar surface of the talus to form the tarsal sinus and tarsal canal
the tarsal canal lies _____ to tarsal sinus
medial - tarsal canal is directed anterolaterally and it is continuous with tarsal sinus
what lies within the tarsal canal?
the tarsal sinus lies at the _________ end of the tarsal canal
name all the structures attached to the tarsal sinus (7)
extensor digitorum brevis
inferior extensor retinaculum
inferior peroneal retinaculum
dorsal calcaenocuboid ligamnet
lateral calcenocuboid ligament ( sometimes absent)
largest facet on the dorsal surface of calcaneus
posterior articular facet
what is the shape of the posterior articular facet of the calcaneus?
what two ligaments attach at the posterior third of the dorsal surface of calcaneus?
posterior talocalcaneal fibulocalcaneal
the plantar surface of the calcaneus is _______ side to side and wider _____ than ______ making it somewhat triangular in shape.
convex ; posteriorly than anteriorly
posterior limit of plantar surface of calcaneus
describe the calcaneal tuberosity
-- depressed in the middle and prolonged into a lateral and a medial process on each side -- lateral process small but very prominent -- medial processs (posteromedial tubercle) is broader and larger than the lateral process
what structures attach to the lateral process (posterolateral tubercle) of calcaneus (4)?
abductor digiti quinti
lateral head of quadratus plantae
long plantar ligament
what structures attach to the medial process (posteromedial tubercle) of the calcaneus (7)?
medial head of quadratus plantae
long plantar ligament - plantar aponeurosis
flexor digitorum brevis
abductor digiti quinti
what structures have attachment to the depression between the medial and lateral processes of the calcaneal tuberosity?
long plantar ligament and abductor digit quiniti
where is the anterior tubercle of the calcaneus?
near the anterior border of the plantar surface of the calcaneus there is a tubercle for the plantar calcaneocuboid ligament (short plantar ligament)
what shape is the facet on the anterior surface of the calcaneus that articulates with the cuboid? what attaches to its medial margin?
Triangular, the facet is convex transversely and concave vertically therefore it appears saddle-shaped
Plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament attaches to the medial margin
the ______ area of the posterior surface of the calcaneus is smooth.
- covered by a bursa that lies deep to the tendo calcaneus - the inferior and middle are are roughened
which part of the calcaneus has a roughened area for the attachment of tendo calcaneus and plantaris? Where does plantaris attach?
- middle area of the posterior surface of calcaneus
- at times plantaris attaches medial to the tendo calcaneus, other times they attach together
the lateral surface of the calcaneus is broader _______ than _____.
-- posteriorly; anteriorly - this surface can have 1-3 tubercles
tubercle directly posterior to the peroneal trochlea/tuberosity on the lateral surface of calcaneus
- retrotrochlear eminence - located in middle third of lateral surface
ridge of bone formed by a groove for the tendon of peroneus longus; where does the tendon in relation to this ridge of bone?
- peroneal trochlea - lies anterior to retrotrochlear eminence on lateral calcaneus
- groove for the tendon of peroneus longus lies inferior and posterior to the peroneal trochlea
how often is the peroneal trochlea present?
- 33% of time - rarely, there is second groove located superior to the peroneal trochlea and formed by the tendon of peroneus brevis (usually not present)
what attaches to the peroneal trochlea?
deep fibers of the inferior peroneal retinaculum
what 3 tubercles might be on the lateral side of calcaneus?
tubercle for calcaneofibular tuberosity
where would the third tubercle be found on the calcaneus?
- lateral surface - posterior and superior to retrotrochlear eminence - serves as attachment for calcaneofibular ligament
how often is the third tubercle on lateral side of calcaneus present?
the ______ ligament attaches just anterior and superior to the calcaneofibular ligament which partially overlies it on the lateral surface of calcaneus
lateral talocalcaneal ligament
the medial surface of the calcenus is deeply _______
- concave - plantar nerves and vessels are located in this hollow
the medial head of the quadratus plantae attaches to the medial surface of _____
- calcaneus *** this attachment of the medial head of quadratus plantae to the medial surface of the calcaneus is more extensive than its attachment to the medial process (plantar surface)
shelf-like projection from medial surface of calcaneus
sustentaculum tali - superior surface of sutentaculum tali articulates with talus - inferior surface is grooved by tendon of flexor hallucis longus
what structures attach to the sustentaculum tali (4)?
tibiocalcaneal ligament (part of deltoid ligament)
medial talocalcaneal ligament
recurrent band of tibialis posterior (partial insertion)
plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament
what tendons attach to the talus?
NONE! no muscle or tendons attach to talus
the body of the talus is ____ in shape
the superior surface of the body of the talus is called the _______
- trochlea - because it is shaped like a pulley - convex from anterior to posterior
what structures does the trochlea of talus articulate with (5)?
tibial plafond (inferior surface of tibia)
medial malleolus of tibia
lateral malleolus of fibula
anterior (inferior) tibiofibular ligament
inferior transverse ligament, which is the deep portion of the posterior (inferior) tibiofibular ligament
the large, oval concave facet on the inferior surface of the body of the talus articulates with _______. The facet is named __________.
calcaneus at subtalar joint
posterior articular facet
located at the union of the body and neck of talus on inferior surface
comma-shaped facet on medial surface of talus articulates with _______.
- medial malleolus - inferior to the surface the medial surface is rough where the anterior tibiotalar ligament (part of deltoid) is attached
the lateral surface of the body of talus has a ________ shape
triangular shape - apex pointing inferiorly
- lateral process - has large triangular facet for the lateral malleolus - rough areas anterior and posterior to articular fact for attachment of anterior talofibular and posterior talofibular ligaments
there are usually ______ for the anterior talofibular ligament and a _____ for the posterior talofibular ligament on the ____ surface of the body of talus
- two tubercles - groove - lateral - the lateral talocalcenal ligament attaches anteroinferior to the lateral malleolar surface
posterior surface of talus aka
- posterior process - ledge of bone that projects posteriorly and inferiorly
what divides the posterior surface of talus into medial and lateral tubercles?
- posterior process is grooved by tendon of flexor hallucis longus, which divides the posterior process into medial and lateral tubercels
what attaches to the medial tubercle on posterior surface of talus?
- medial talocalcaneal ligament and posterior tibiotalar ligament (part of deltoid) - if present, the medial band of posterior talocalcaneal ligament also attaches to medial tubercle
the lateral tubercle on posterior talus is larger than the medial. what three ligaments attach to it?
- posterior talofibular - posterior talocalcaneal - fibulotalocalcaneal
when secondary ossification in the lateral tubercle of posterior process of talus fails to fuse it creates an accessory bone called __________
where is the neck of the talus seen most easily?
-on lateral and superior surfaces - on medial and inferior surfaces the neck is represented by a deep groove called the sulcus tali
the sulcus tali and calcaneal sulcus together form the ...
tarasal sinus and tarsal canal
what does the tarsal canal contain?
- interosseous talocalcaneal ligament
what attaches to the superior surface of the neck of the talus?
(dorsal) talonavicular ligament
how is the head of the talus directed?
anteriorly medially slightly inferiorly
the anterior surface of the head of the talus has a large _____, _________ facet for its articularion with navicular
how many facets are on the inferior surface of the head of the talus?
- three - two facets articulate with calcaneus - third facet articulates with plantar calcaneonvaicular (spring) ligament (superior portion of ligament contains fibrocartilage upon which head of talus rests)
what facets are located on the inferior surface of the head of the talus?
anterior calcaneal facet -- articulates with anterior talar facet middle calcaneal facet -- articulates with middle talar facet
the most lateral bone in distal row of tarsal bones
orientation of the cuboid
-superior surface is directed superolateral - inferior surface is directed inferomedial
which ligaments attach on the superior surface of the cuboid?
(5) - dorsal calcaneocuboid - dorsal cuneocuboid - dorsal cuboideonavicular - two dorsal cuboideometatarsals (one ligament to 4th; one to 5th) - lateral calcaneocuboid
the "beak" of cuboid
- the coronoid process - located on plantar surface where the medial and posterior borders meet
what structures are on the plantar surface of the cuboid?
- peroneal sulcus - peroneal ridge - both sulcus and ridge course obliquely from posterolateral to anteromedial - peroneal sulcus lies distal to the peroneal ridge - tendon of peroneus longus lies either in the peroneal groove or against the anterior aspect of the peroneal ridge - deep fibers of the long plantar ligament attach to the peroneal ridge - superficial fibers of the long plantar ligament course over the tendon of peroneus longus
what forms an osseofibrous canal for the tendon of the peoneus longus?
- long plantar ligament and cuboid form an osseofibrous canal for the tendon of the peroneus longus
what structures are attached to the plantar surface of the cuboid?
(7) - long plantar ligament - short plantar ligament - plantar cuboideonavicular ligament - tibialis posterior - flexor hallucis brevis - plantar cuneocuboid ligament - two plantar cuboideometatarsals ligaments (one to 4th, one to 5th)
the peroneal ridge on cuboid terminates laterally as..
the cuboid tuberosity has an ______ facet
- oval - over which there is a sesamoid bone (os peroneum) in tendon of peroneus longus
located at the plantar edge of the lateral surface of cuboid
peroneal notch - this notch marks the beginning of the peroneal sulcus
shape of the medial surface of cuboid
quadrilateral - has a triangular facet for lateral cuneiform at the dorsal, middle portion - can sometimes also be small facet for navicular
3 ligaments attached to medial surface of cuboid
- interosseous cuboideonavicular - itneroseous cuneocuboid - calcaneocuboid portion of the bifurcated ligament
the posterior surface of the cuboid has a _____ shape facet for calcaneus
triangular - saddle-shaped - concave transversely and convex vertically
the anterior surface of the cuboid has a vertical ridge that separates two facets. Describe the shape of the medial and lateral facet.
- medial facet is quadrilateral in shape and is for articulation with base of 4th metatarsal - lateral facet is triangular with apex directed laterally for articulation with 5th metatarsal
navicular is latin for ...
formerly known as scaphoid
describe shape of navicular
- boat shaped - concave proximally and convex distally - articulates with talus, three cuneifroms and cuboid, rarely with calcaneus
the dorsal surface of the navicular is _________ and oriented ______.
what ligaments attach to dorsal surface of navicular?
(5) - three dorsal cuneonaviculars - dorsal cuboideonavicular - dorsal talonavicular - calcaneonavicular portion of the bifurcated ligament - tibionavicular portion of the deltoid ligament
what separates the navicular tuberosity from the plantar surface?
groove for tendon of tibialis posterior - groove is for continuation of the tendon of tibialis posterior beyond its attachment to the tuberosity
the ligaments attached to the plantar surface of the navicular bone are:
(3) - spring ligament (plantar calcaneonavicular) - plantar cuboideonavicular ligament - three plantar cuneonavicualr ligaments (one to each cuneiform)
what attaches to the lateral edge/surface of the navicular?
- lateral calcaneonavicular portion of the bifurcated ligament (also attaches dorsally) - cuboideonavicular ligament
what attaches to the medial tuberosity on the navicular?
- tibialis posterior (may have os tibiale externum accessory bone) - medial cuneonavicular ligament (attaches to medial cuneiform)
the anterior surface of the navicular is _______ from side to side
describe teh facets on the anterior surface of the navicular.
- large articular facet subdivided by tow vertical crests into 3 articular area - medial (largest) pear-shaped, triangular or quadrilateral in shape - middle and lateral are triangular - each facet articulates with appropriate cuneiform
the posterior surface of the navicular is ______
concave - contains a large oval/tear-shaped facet for articulation with head of talus
cuneiform is latin for ...
smallest and most typical cuneiform
the _____ surface of the medial cuneiform is its base.
what tendons have partial insertion to the plantar surface of medial cuneiform
- tibialis anterior - tibialis posterior - peroneus longus
several ligaments attach to the plantar surface of the medial cuneiform. what are they?
(4) - plantar cuneonavicular - plantar intercuneiform - plantar cuneometatarsal (to first met) - plantar cuneometatarsal (to second met)
medial surface of medial cuneiform has a ___ shape
why is the facet on anteroinferior aspect of medial cuneiform unique?
- does not articulate with another tarsal bone but has small facet near its anteroinferior aspect - small bursa lies between this facet and a sesamoid bone within the tendon of tibialis anterior
what ligaments attach to the medial surface of the medial cuneiform
(5) - medial cuneonavicular - dorsal cuneonavicular - dorsal intercuneiform - dorsal cuneometatarsal (to first met) - dorsal cuneometatarsal (to 2nd met)
the lateral surface of the medial cuneiform is _____ and has __ facets
- concave - two - small oval facet foudn anteriorly for the bas eof the second metatarsal - facet for intermeidate cuneiform has teh shape of an inverted L - horizontal part of L is superior and the vertical part is posterior
what two ligaments attach to the lateral surface of the medial cuneiform
- lisfranc's ligament (interosseous tarsometatrsal ligament attached to lateral surface of medial cuneiform and second met) - interosseous intercuneiform ligament to intermediate cuneiform
what is the shape of the anterior surface of the medial cuneiform>
kidney shaped/ reniform surface - this surface articulates with base of the first metatarsal
the posterior surface of the medial cuneiform is _______ and articulates with the navicular.
- concave - can be triangular, pear-shaped or quadrilateral
what is the shape of the dorsal surface of the intermediate cuneiform?
- quadrilateral or square - the dorsal surface forms the base of the cuneiform and it sough
there is a ligament to each of the 4 bones that articulate with the intermediate cuneiform. The ligaments are:
- dorsal cuneonavicular - two dorsal intercuneiform - dorsal cuneometatarsal
the ____ surface of the intermediate cuneiform is the the apex of wedge.
- plantar - thin, crest-like surface
what ligaments attach to the plantar surface of the intermediate cuneiform?
- plantar cuneonavicular - two plantar intercuneiforms
The anterior surface of the intermediate cuneiform has a ________ facet for its articulation with the ________ metatarsal.
- triangular - second metatarsal
The posterior surface of the intermediate cuneiform has _______ facet for its articulation with the ______.
- triangular - navicular
The ________ surface of the intermediate cuneiform has a articular facet shaped like an inverted L.
- medial - the horizontal part is superior and the vertical part is posterior - non-articular area is for an interosseous intercuneiform ligament with the medial cuneiform
The lateral surface of the intermediate cuneiform has both an articular area and a nonarticular area. The articular facet is smooth and has the shape of ______. The nonarticular area is for attachment of _______.
- elongated oval, elongated in vertical direction - interoseous intercuneiform ligament to the lateral cuneiform
the dorsal surface of the lateral cuneiform is _______ in shape. what ligaments attach here?
- rectangular - (4) - dorsal cuneocuboid - dorsal cuneonavicular - dorsal intercuneiform - two dorsal cuneometatarsal ligaments
the ___ surface of the lateral cuneiform is the apex of the wedge. What muscles attach to this surface? What ligaments attach to this surface?
- plantar - muscles: flexor hallucis brevis and tibialis posterior - ligaments: plantar cuneocuboid, plantar cuneonavicular, plantar intercuneiform, plantar cuneometatarsal
the anterior surface of the lateral cuneiform has a ______ facet for articulation with the base of the ____ metatarsal.
- triangular - third
The posterior surface of the lateral cuneiform is ____. It articulates with the ______.
- triangular - navicular
the medial surface of the lateral cuneiform is ____ in shape. Posteriorly, there is a _____ facet for articulation with the _______ cuneiform. Anteriorly, there are _________ demarcates for articulation with the second metatarsal.
- rectangular - vetically orientated oval facet - intermediate - two oval demarcates
the only ligament attached to the medial surface of the lateral cuneiform is _______
the lateral surface of the lateral cuneiform is ______ with ___ facets.
- rectangular - two facets - larger more posteriorly facet is triangular and for articulation with cuboid - smaller more anterior is oval for articulation with fourth metatarsal
the only ligament attached to the lateral surface of the lateral cuneiform is the ...
the proximal extremity of the metatarsal is the _____ and the distal extremity is the ______
- base - head
the bases of the metatarsal bone articulate with ________ and the bases of the lesser metatarsal also articulate with _______
- distal row of tarsal bones - with each other
the shafts of the metatarsal have longitudinal curve that is _____ dorsally and ______ plantarly
- convex - concave
the heads of the metatarsal are convex. The _____ surface of each head extends back proximally further than does the _____ surface.
- proximally; dorsal
what ligament is attached tot he heads of all five metatarsal bones?
deep transverse metatarsal ligament
- first - also thickest, heaviest and strongest
the posterior surface of the base of the first met has a ________ facet for its articulation with the medial cuneiform
- concave, reniform (kidney-shaped) facet
how many surfaces does the base of the first metatarsal have?
- inferior, medial and lateral (ellen: and posterior?) - base is somewhat triangular
what two tendons attach to the base of the first met?
- tibialis anterior attaches to the medial surface of the base - peroneus longus attaches to the lateral surface of the base - these tendons attach inferiorly near the plantar surface
what two ligaments attach to the base of the first met>
- dorsal and plantar cuneometatarsal ligaments - these attache to medial and inferior surfaces respectively
the ___________ muscle is attached to the lateral surface of the shaft of first met.
- medial head of the first dorsal interosseous muscle - shaft has three surfaces: lateral, inferior, and dorsomedial
on the plantar surface of the first met, the two facets for the medial and lateral sesamoid bones are separated by a small ridge of bone, ___
- the median crista
the ______ diameter of the head of the first met is greater than the ________ diameter. For the other four mets, the _______ diameter is greater than the transverse.
- transverse; vertical - vertical; transverse
how is the second met unique compared to other mets?
- longest of mets - extends more proximally - articulates proximally with all three cuneiforms
base of the second met is ______ shaped. The borders are _____.
- wedge-shaped or pyramidal with apex directed plantarly - borders are dorsal, lateral, and medial
The posterior surface of the second met base has a ____ facet for its articulation with intermediate cuneiform. The medial surface of the base of the second met has a _______ facet for its articulation with the medial cueniform. The lateral surface of the base has ____ facets for articulation with ________.
- triangular - small, oval (occasionally a second small oval facet, located anterior and inferior to the facet for the medial cuneiform is present - it is a pressure facet for first met and forms from contact between the bones. ) - two facets, one dorsal and one plantar. a ridge of bone separates each facet into demarcates. - the two anterior demarcates are for the third met. the two posterior demarcates are for the lateral cuneiform
Four ligaments attach to the dorsal surface of the base of the second met:
- dorsal intermetatarsal ligament to third met - three dorsal cuneometatarsal ligaments, one for each cuneiform
what structures attach to the plantar surface of the base of the second met:
- long plantar ligament - tibialis posterior - plantar cuneometatarsal ligament - plantar intermetatarsal ligament - adductor hallucis (oblique head)
two ligaments attach to the lateral surface of the base of the second met:
- interosseous intermetatarsal - interosseous cuneometatarsal
what attaches to the medial surface of the base of the second met?
the shaft of the second met gives rise to what muscles ?
- lateral head of first dorsal interosseous (from medial surface) - medial head of second dorsal itnerosseous (from lateral surface)
the shafts of the second, third and fourth mets have how many surfaces?
3 - dorsal - lateral - medial in cross section the shaft of a metatarsal would appear triangular in shape
the articular surface of the second met head diverges into medial and lateral condyles. what structure passes between these condyles?
where are the articular surfaces on the base of the third met?
- one on posterior surface - one on the lateral surface - two on the medial surface
the posterior surface of the base of third met has a _______ facet for the lateral cuneiform. the lateral surface of the base has a ________ facet for the fourth met. Just inferior to this facet, there is a distinctive ____________ characteristic of the bone.
- triangular - small, oval - groove for the interosseous intermetatarsal ligament
the medial surface of the base of the third met has _____ demarcates for articulation with ________. What attaches to the medial surface?
- two, one dorsal and one plantar - second metatarsal - interosseous intermetatarsal ligament
what three ligaments attach to the dorsal surface of the base of the third met?
- two dorsal intermetatarsal ligaments - dorsal cuneometatarsal ligament
what structures attach to the crest of the base of the third met?
(6) - oblique head of adductor hallucis - tibialis posterior - long plantar ligament - plantar cuneometatarsal ligament - two plantar intermetatarsal ligaments
how many muscles originate from the shaft of the third met?
- lateral head of second dorsal interosseous - medial head of third dorsal interosseous - first plantar interosseous
The posterior surface of the base of the fourth met has a _________ facet for its articulation with the ________. The medial surface of the base of the fourth met has an _____ facet for its articulation with _______.
- quadrilateral; cuboid - oval, divided by a ridge; anterior articulates with third met and posterior articulates with lateral cuneiform
what ligaments attach to the dorsal surface of the base of the 4th met?
- two dorsal intermetatarsal - dorsal cuboideometatarsals
like the second and third met, the plantar surface of the base of the fourth met serves as origin for the _________.
oblique head of adductor hallucis
what structures attach tot he plantar surface of the fourth met?
- oblique head of adductor hallucis - tibialis posterior - long plantar ligamnet - plantar cuboideometatarsal ligament - two plantar intermetatarsal ligaments
the lateral surface of the base of the 4th met has a _______ facet for ________.
- large, triangular or oval - fifth metatarsal - an interosseous intermetatarsal ligament is attached to this surface
the shaft of the fourth metatarsals serves as origin for what muscles?
- lateral head of third dorsal interosseous - medial head of fourth dorsal interoseous - second plantar interosseous
the apex of the 5ht met points _________.
- plantarly and laterally - known as the styloid process of the fifth
the base of the 5th met is _______ in shape
triangular or pyramidal
The posterior surface of the base of the 5th met has a _____ facet for the _______. The medial surface has a ____ facet for the 4th met.
- triangular; cuboid - triangular or oval; fourth met
primary feature of the lateral surface of the base of the 5th met
tuberosity of the 5th met
what inserts onto the tuberosity of the 5th met?
- peroneus brevis - peroneus tertius inserts onto the dorsal surface of the base and the dorsal surface of the shaft of the 5th met
what attaches to the medial surface of the 5th met?
an interosseous intermetatarsal ligament
what structures attach to the dorsal surface of the base of 5th met?
- peroneus tertius - dorsal cuboideometatarsals ligament - dorsal intermetatarsal ligament
the plantar surface of the base of the 5th met is grooved by ______
tendon of abductor digiti quinti
_________ takes partial origin from the surface of the base of the 5th met.
flexor digiti quint
at times, an accessory muslce called abductor os metatarsi digit minimi also inserts ___________.
plantar surface of the base of the fifth metatarsal
a thickening in the planatar aponerosis called the ______ ligament, attaches to the plantar surface of the base of the 5th met.
calcaneometatarsal ligament (plantar ligament of the sole
what structures attach to the plantar surface of the base of the 5th met?
- flexor digiti quinti brevis - plantar ligament of the sole - plantar cuboideometatarsals ligament - plantar intermetatarsal ligament
the shaft of the 5th metatarsal serves as origin for what muscles?
- lateral head of the fourth dorsal interoseous - third plantar interosseous
the shaft of the 5th met has a different orientation than those of the 2nd-4th. The surfaces are:
dorsal, medial, and inferior
the large toe has __ phalanges. The lesser toes has ____ phalanges per toe.
- two: proximal and distal - three: proximal, middle and distal
the proximal phalanx has a large base directed _______.
oval, concave articular surface on great toe =
glenoid cavity - glenoid cavity is smaller than the head of the metatarsal which articulates with it
there is a transverse crest on the ______ surface of the proximal phalanx of great toe close to its base. What inserts on this crest?
- transverse - extensor hallucis brevis
On the plantar surface of the proximal phalanx of great does, there are ____ tubercle near the base.
- two - medial plantar tubercle is large; attached to it are teh medial head of glexor hallucis brevis and abductor hallucis - attached to lateral plantar tubercle are the lateral head of gleoxr hallucis brevis and sdductor hallucis
the shaft of the proximal phalanx of the great toe is ______ plantarly. It is slightly grooved at each end by the ___________. The shaft of the proximal phalanx is _______ dorsally.
- concave - tendon of flexor hallucis longus - convex
Describe the head of the proximal phalanx of the great toe.
- flat vertically - articular surface trochlear; large and extends more plantarly than dorsally
the distal phalanx of the great toe has ______ oriented base.
- large, transversely oriented
the distal phalanx of the great toe does not line up with the proximal phalanx on the same plane. How much does it deviate?
deviates laterally by 15 degrees
on the dorsal surface of the distal phalanx of great toe, ___________ attaches to a tuberosity near the base. However, on the plantar surface, ______________ attaches to an obliquely directed ridge which courses along the entire plantar surface.
- extensor hallucis longus - flexor hallucis longus
true or false: the proximal phalanges of the lesser toes are longer than the middle and distal phalanges combined.
the bases of the lesser toes have _______ facets for the metatarsal heads
each proximal phalanx has ____ plantar tubercels
- two, one medial one lateral
For toes three through five, the ___________ tuebrcle is for plantar interosei.
- medial plantar tubercle - Both tubercles of toe two and the lateral tubercles for toes 3 and 4 are for dorsal interossei. - lateral tubercle of the fifth toe is for abductor digiit quinti and flexor digiti quinit (brevis)
what attaches to the lateral tubercle of the fifth toe?
abductor digiti quinit and flexor digiti quinit (brevis)
what are the two most constant sesamoid bones of the foot?
- medial (tibial) and lateral (fibular) bones within the tnedons of flexor hallucis brevis - located at the first metatarsophalangeal joint - medial sesamoid bone is usually larger than the lateral
Name the bone located within the tendon of the tibialis anterior as it crosses the smooth facet on the medial cuneiform.
- no special name - almost always present
sesamoid bone located within the tendon of peroneus longus as it crosses the cuboid
List of other sesamoid bones in order of decreasing frequency.
1. w/i tendon of flexor digitorum brevis to the second toe, at the MPJ 2. w/i tendon of flexor digitorum brevis to the fifth toe, at the MPJ 3. w/i tendon of tibialis posterior, beneath the navicular 4. w/i tendon of flexor digitorum brevis to third toe, at MPJ 5. w/i tendon of flexor digitorum brevis to fourth toe at the MPJ 6. w/i tendon of flexor hallucis longus at the IPJ 7. w/i tendon of flexor digitorum longus at the proximal interphalangeal joints (freq 2,5,3,4) 8. w/i any of follwing tendons as they cross malleoli: tibailis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, peroneus longus, perneus brevis
name the most common accessory bones
os trigonum os tibiale os intermetatarseum each of these bones is found in about 10% of the population
accessory bone associated with the lateral tubercle of the posterior process of the talus
accessory bone found when the secondary ossification center in the navicular tuberosity fails to fuse with the rest of the navicular
os tibiale externum
accessory bone located between the emdial cuneiform and th abses of the first and second metatarsals
accessory bone associated with the lateral cuneiform
accessory bone associated with the tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal
os vesalinum (vesalius' bone)
what tarsal bone has more than one ossification center?
- calcaneus has an epiphysis in the posterior extremity as well as a primary ossification center - all other tarsal have a single center
what is the sequence of ossification in the foot bones? (when begin ossification)
1. metatarsals and phalanges: 9-12 wks in utero 2. calcaneus: months 4-7 in utero 3. talus: month 6 in utero 4. cuboid: birth 5. lateral cuneiform: during year 1 6. medial cuneiform: during year 2 7. intermediate cuneifrom: during year 3 8. navicular: during year 3 - last tarsal to begin ossification 9. sesamoids: each has its own ossification center
last tarsal bone to begin ossificiation
each metatarsal bone has __ ossification centers.
- two - diaphysis in the shaft (appears during fetus) - first met: epiphysis at base (appears during year 3) - mets 2-5: epiphysis at the head (appears during years 5-8)
each phalanx has _____ ossification centers
- two - a diaphysis in the shaft - epiphysis at base
what are the bones of the medial arch?
fist three metatarsals all three cuneiforms navicular calcaneus talus
what is the keystone of the medial arch
what are the bones of the lateral arch
mets 4 and 5 cuboid calcaneus talus
what is the keystone of the lateral arch
cuboid "although all the weight is transferred only via the talus, the cuboid is considered the keystone of this arch"
where is the transverse arch of the foot located?