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Flashcards in Plantar - Lab Deck (94):
1

plantar aponeurosis extends from __________ to the _____ and from there via ______ slips to the digits

- from the calcaneal tuberosity - ball of the foot - five - it is also connected to the skin via connective tissue septa

2

at its origin, the plantar aponeurosis is _____ cm wide

1-2 cm - it widens considerably as the fibers proceed longitudinally towards the toes

3

lateral extension of the plantar aponeurosis is known as ...

calcaneometatarsal ligament - extending between the calcaneus to the base of the 5th metatarsal

4

near the superficial ball of the foot a band of transverse fibers should be observed longitudinally. what are they?

superficial transverse metatarsal ligament

5

what structures are you trying to expose when you clean between the digital slips?

- terminal branches of superficial plantar arch and its branches - superficial plantar digital arteries

6

there are usually ___ superficial plantar arteries

three

7

what nerves course along with the superficial plantar arteries?

proper plantar digital nerves

8

what artery and nerve run together emerging from the medial groove close to the ball of the foot?

- 1st proper plantar digital nerve - superficial tibial plantar artery

9

what artery and nerve are found in the distal part of the lateral groove?

- 10th proper plantar digital artery and nerve

10

where is the superficial branch of the medial plantar a. located relative to the plantar aponeurosis?

medial side

11

what are the terminal branches of the superficial branch of the medial plantar a?

- superficial tibial plantar a. - common plantar digital (branch of medial plantar a.)

12

at the medial side of the 1st toe, the superficial tibial plantar a. becomes the ...

1st proper plantar digital a.

13

what courses with the 1st proper plantar digital a. ?

1st proper plantar digital nerve.

14

a large superficial tibial plantar a. often replaces the ...

1st plantar metatarsal a.

15

tracing the superficial tibial artery proximally you locate the ...

common plantar digital a.

16

the superficial plantar arch has ______ superficial plantar digital arteries branching off it

three

17

what forms most of the superficial plantar arch?

common plantar digital branch of the medial plantar artery

18

the superficial plantar arch is completed on the lateral side by anastomosis with ____________

superficial branch of the lateral plantar artery

19

the superficial plantar arch is ________ to the distal end of the plantar aponeurosis and ___________ to the tendons of the flexor digitorum brevis muscle

- deep - superficial

20

the superficial plantar digital arteries anastomose with ...

plantar metatarsal arteries of deep plantar arch

21

at their termination, the deep layers of the digital slips blend with ...

fibrous digital sheaths of each toe

22

what divides the muscle of the sole of the foot into three compartments?

the two intermuscular septa of the plantar aponeurosis

23

flexor retinaculum aka

lacinate ligament

24

the flexor retinaculum extends between

calaneus and medial malleolus

25

what n. pierces the retinaculum?

medial calaneal n. (branch of tibial n.)

26

the flexor retinaculum is divided into 4 compartments. what is in each?

anterior/first = tendon of tibialis posterior second =tendon o fflexor digitorum longus third = posterior tibial vessels and tibial n. fourth = tendon of flexor hallucis longus

27

what are the two terminal branches of the tibial n.?

medial and lateral plantar nn.

28

_____ to the superior border of the flexor retinaculum identify the posterior tibial artery and its venae comitantes

proximal

29

what are the two terminal branches of the posterior tibial artery?

medial and lateral plantar arteries

30

which is bigger? medial or lateral plantar aa

lateral plantar a.

31

which is bigger? medial or lateral plantar nn

medial plantar n.

32

where is the medial calcaneal a. located?

- piercing the flexor retinaculum - can also originate from the lateral plantar a and on occasion there can be more than one branch

33

where is the peroneal retinaculi located?

- along the lateral side of the foot inferior to the lateral malleolus - there is a superior and inferior peroneal retinaculi - both are thickenings of the deep fascia of the foot

34

the superior peroneal retincauli extends from ...

lateral malleolus to the lateral surface of the calcaneus

35

the inferior peroneal retinaculum is continuous with ...

- the stem of the inferior extensor retinaculum

36

the inferior peroneal retinaculum expands over _______ and attaches to ...

- over the tendons of peroneus longus and brevis - attaches to calcaneus (tarsal sinus) inferior to the tendon of peroneus longus - deep fibers of the retinaculum attach to the peroneal trochlea between the tendons of the peroneus longus and brevis

37

where does the tendon of the peroneus brevis insert?

at the tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal

38

true or false: peroneus longus and peroneus brevis share a common tendon sheath

TRUE

39

what are the three muscles of the first layer?

abductor hallucis flexor digitorum brevis abductor digiti minimi

40

proximal attachment of flexor digitorum brevis

medial process of calcaneal tuberosity

41

insertion of the tendons of flexor digitorum brevis

middle phalanx of lateral four toes

42

which tendon of the flexor digitorum brevis might be missing?

tendon to the 5th toe

43

nerve supply to flexor digitorum brevis

medial plantar nerve (enters proximal part of muscle)

44

what m underlies the abductor digiti minimi?

flexor digiti minimi brevis

45

origin of abductor digiti minimi?

medial and lateral processes of the calcaneal tuberosity

46

insertion of abductor digiti minimi

proximal phalanx of 5th toe

47

nerve supply to the abductor digiti minimi

branch of lateral plantar n.

48

the medial plantar a. lies _________ to the medial plantar nerve

medial

49

what originates from the medial plantar nerve?

(3) common plantar digital nerves

50

what nn. arise from the first common plantar digital nerve?

2nd and 3rd proper plantar digital nerves

51

the nerve to the first lumbrical originates from what n?

first common plantar digital nerve

52

where does the seventh proper plantar digital n. originate from?

3rd common plantar digital n.

53

describe the termination of the proper plantar digital nerves

terminate at distal ends of the toes where they curl around the tip of the toes to innervate the nail beds

54

the medial calcaneal a. is a branch off of the ...

posterior tibial a.

55

what are the main branches off the medial plantar a?

- superficial branch and deep branch (ramus profundus)

56

what are the main branches off the superficial branch of the medial plantar a. ?

- common plantar digital - superficial plantar tibial branches - it also has branches to the abductor halucis and flexor digitorum brevis

57

how does the common plantar digital a. end?

- dividing into three superficial plantar digital arteries - each branch joins a plantar metatarsal a.

58

you are carefully cleaning the are between the abductor digiti minimi and flexor digitorum brevis near the base of the 5th metatarsal - what do you identify?

lateral plantar artery and nerve - entering this space from the medial side of the foot

59

the lateral plantar nerve lies ________ to the lateral plantar artery

medial

60

where does the muscular branch to the abductor digiti minimi n. come from?

lateral plantar n. - the lateral plantar n divides into a superficial and deep division after giving off this branch

61

which division of the lateral plantar n. follow the deep plantar arterial arch?

deep division of lateral plantar n.

62

what n. supplies the muscular branches to the flexor digiti minimi brevis?

superficial division of the lateral plantar n. - it also provides branches to the most lateral plantar and dorsal interossei muscles

63

starting at the proximal phalanx of the 5th toe, the superficial division of the lateral plantar nerve is known as...

10th proper plantar digital n.

64

where does the 4th common plantar digital branch come from?

superficial division of the lateral plantar n.

65

what are the terminal branches of the 4th common plantar digital branch of the superficial division of the lateral plantar n?

8th and 9th proper plantar digital nerves

66

you notice that some fibers from the abductor digiti minimi attach to the fifth metatarsal, what is the part of the muscle known as?

abductor os metatarsi digiti minimi

67

which layer is the quadratus plantae (flexor accessorius) m located in?

second layer

68

where do the lateral and medial heads of the quadratus plantae arise from/

medial : medial surface of calcaneus, inferior to the groove for the flexor hallucis longus tendon lateral: lateral surface and lateral edge of the plantar surface of the calcaneus and from the long plantar ligament

69

where does the quadratus platae insert?

into the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus

70

the lateral plantar artery is _________ to the lateral plantar n. as it course obliquely from medial to lateral across the belly of the quadratus plantae

lateral

71

what n. courses laterally across the proximal part of the quadratus plantae muscle?

nerve to abductor digiti minimi

72

what is the origin of the four lumbricals?

tendon of flexorr digitroum longus

73

what forms the inferior and lateral walls that house the tendons of the flexor muscles?

fibrous flexor sheaths

74

each flexor digitorum brevis tendon splits just ______ to the metatarsophalangeal joint to surround the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus

proximal - the two split ends unite deep to the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus and then divide again to attach to the sides of the middle phalanx

75

fibrous, membrane-like structures that connect the bony phalanges with the distal ends of the flexor digitorum longus and brevis tendons

short vincula - the long vincula are located proximal to the short - each vincula has a proximal and distal part - usually cord-like structures that attach to the dorsal aspect of the tendons - both the long and short carry blood vessels to the tendons

76

this large branch passes laterally across the proximal end of quadratus plantae to reach the abductor digiti minimi m. near its origin

branch of the lateral n. that supplies the abductor digiti minimi

77

the branches of the deep division of the lateral plantar n. innervate what muscles?

lumbrical muscels 2, 3, and 4 also gives muscular branches to interossei

78

this artery follows the course oft he superficial branch of the lateral plantar n.

superficial fibular plantar a.

79

at the lateral side of the proximal phalanx of the 5th toe, the superficial branch of the lateral plantar n. is known as ...

10th proper plantar digital a.

80

the lateral plantar a. dives deep below the _____________ as the deep plantar arch

oblique head of the adductor hallucis

81

distal branches of the deep branch of the medial plantar artery (ramus profundus)

tibial and lateral branches

82

at the base of the 1st metatarsal bone, the tibial branch of the ramus profundus anastomoses with...

1st plantar metatarsal a. - the lateral branch of the ramus profundus will join with the deep plantar arch

83

what is the innervation tot he flexor digiti quinti brevis

superficial division of the lateral plantar n.

84

the posterior/proximal perforating branches are usually _____ in number

3 originate from the deep arterial arch join with the dorsal metatarsal arteries

85

reflecting the oblique head of the adductor hallucis, what do you observe?

- deep plantar arterial arch and deep division of the lateral plantar n .

86

at the 1st interosseous space, the deep plantar artery from the __________ joins with the arch to complete it

dorsalis pedis a - the lateral branch of the ramus profundus joins the arch close to where the deep plantar joins the arch

87

what originates from the deep plantar arterial arch?

four plantar metatarsal arteries and their anterior/distal perforating branches

88

the plantar metatarsal arteries course ____________ to the metatarsal bones

distally superficial not in the interosseous spaces *** arteries remain superficial to the interosseous muscles

89

distal to the anterior perforating arteries, the plantar metatarsal arteries become known as the _______

common plantar digital arteries

90

each common plantar digital artery gives rise to ....

two proper plantar digital arteries

91

what is the origin of the 1st proper plantar digital artery?

- from the superficial tibial branch of the medial plantar OR from the 1st plantar metatarsal artery

92

the three plantar interossei originate from the ______ side of metatarsals _________-

medial side metatarsals 3-5

93

the dorsal interossei originate from _______ of metatarsals

adjacent sides of all metatarsal bones

94

where does the tibialis posterior tendon attach? ***

- tuberosity of navicular bone - 2nd, 3rd, 4th metatarsals - all other tarsals EXCEPT for the talus