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Anatomy and Physiology 1 > Bones > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bones Deck (20):
1

How do the cervical vertebrae move? Demonstrate each movement

Flexion Extension Lateral flexion Rotation

2

What are the movements of the lumbar vertebrae?

Flexion Extension Lateral flexion Very limited rotation

3

How many bones are there in the body?

206

4

What are the three main functions of the spinal column?

To support the body in its upright position. To protect the spinal cord Permit movement

5

What are the typical, physical, characteristics of vertebra?

A large mass of weight-bearing bone. A circular opening (neural canal) Projections to side and rear

6

There are 12 sets of ribs, broken down into three distinct sections.  name the sections, how many ribs in each section and any particular characteristics to note?

Cervical vertebrae

There are 7 of these, the first one [C1] is called the atlas....like atlas the man who balanced the wold on their shoulder, this one balances the head on the spine. C2 is called the axis.....it rotates the head...well, the whole of the cervial vertebrae do..... I don't know why it's called the axis. 

 

Thoracic vertebrae

  • 1-7 are the true ribs, so called because they are attached to the sternum
  • 8, 9, 10 are called the false ribs, as they are attached to a massive bit of gristle or cartilage or something, and then they all join onto the 7th rib
  • 11 & 12 are the floating ribs, I didn't even realise we had these! They are only attached to the spine

 

Lumbar vertebrae  

L1-L5 - y'know, because there are 5 of them, the spinal cord comes out of the vertebrae between T12 and L1.

7

What can the Thoracic vertebrae do?

Rotation Very limited flexion, extension and lateral flexion because they're attached to the ribs.

8

What are the long-term effects of weight-bearing exercise?

Bone density Strength of ligaments Strength of joint structures Thickness of cartilage Also. Regular weight-bearing exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of osteoporosis

9

The skeleton is divided into how many parts? How many bones on each part?

Two 80 on the axial - that is, the axis....skull, spine, ribs and pelvis 126 on the appendicular, the bits that hang off the axial

10

Why is the spinal column curved?

Flexibility of movement, reverting back to its original shape S-shape ensures our weight is centered over our feet.

11

The bone is structured from four components, what are they?

Marrow Cavity 
Yellow bone marrow is fat used an energy reserve. Red marrow provided the body with red and white blood cells and platelets. 

Shaft 
Cortical or compact bone is a dense and strong material. It forms the putter layer (beneath the periosteum) in long bones this is the thickest in the shaft. Whilst the shaft is usually compact bone, the ends are usually vaulted in structure at the expanded ends (like the ball bit of a ball and socket) it's like this to transfer the stress and weight from bone shafts to joints 

Periosteum
The outside layer of the bone. It's a tough, fibrous shear or membrane. It's important in one formation and bone repair after accidents. 


Bulbous end
Consist of latticework

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12

What are the four the types of bone and how are they classified? 

Long

Short

Flat

Irregular

13

What's an irregular bone? 

Anything that doesn't fit into the long, short or flat category. 

Spine, ears, and mandible typically. 

 

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14

What are the characteristics of short bones?

Normally round in shape, rather than flat or irregular. 
Carpals (found in the hands)
Tarsals (found in the feet, are prime examples of this)

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15

What are the characteristics of flat bones?

They're normally broad and have smooth surfaces e.g. Skull, sternum, pelvis and scapula. 

Often used to protect soft tissue e.g. The skull

OR

To provide attachments for muscles over a large area e.g. The scapula. 

They're formed of hard bone of varying thickness and have a spongy layer in between. 

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16

Why should children only use their body weight when training? 

Because their bones are. Or fully formed and they still have fontanels (the membrane in between the bones)

17

The bone is structured from four components, what are they?

Marrow Cavity 
Yellow bone marrow is fat used an energy reserve. Red marrow provided the body with red and white blood cells and platelets. 

Shaft 
Cortical or compact bone is a dense and strong material. It forms the putter layer (beneath the periosteum) in long bones this is the thickest in the shaft. Whilst the shaft is usually compact bone, the ends are usually vaulted in structure at the expanded ends (like the ball bit of a ball and socket) it's like this to transfer the stress and weight from bone shafts to joints 

Periosteum
The outside layer of the bone. It's a tough, fibrous shear or membrane. It's important in one formation and bone repair after accidents. 


Bulbous end
Consist of latticework

A image thumb
18

What are Osteoclasts?

Large cells. 

They're responsible for growth maintenance and repair. 

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19

What is ossification?

How bones are formed. Full maturation occurs at around 25 years old

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20

Why should children only use their body weight when training? 

Because their bones are still forming and they still have fontanels (the membrane in between the bones)