Map the journey of a cell through the circulatory and pulmonary system...starting with a bit of blood
- Into the right atrium, via the vena cava
- Squished into the right ventricle, through the tricuspid valve
- Out of the ventricle, via the pulmonary artery - NOT the vein as you would think
- Into the lungs
- Grab oxygen and shit, leave carbon dioxide and shit not needed
- Head into the lef atrium, via the pulmonary vein
- Squished down into the left ventricle, through the mistral valve
- Out of the left ventricle, via the aorta and back into the body
Systole and diostole - what happens when... including valves.
Systole is the emptying of the ventricles, so the right into the pulmonary artery and the left into the aorta
Dystole is when the blood is squished from the right atrium into the right ventrical, through the tricuspid valve and the left atrium pushed blood through the mitral valve into the left atrium.
No, but really...... What is the function of respiration?
It's a gas exchange. We need the oxygen to carry nutrients and fuel around our body, via the blood
Explain the functions of the blood
The body’s transportation system
- Oxygen to tissues
- Carbon Dioxide away from tissue and to the lungs ready to be exhaled out
- Foods – taking nutrition to the tissue, via the capillaries
- Waste Products – away from tissues that have made them and back to the lungs to be exhaled out
- Hormones – to where they are needed
- Antibodies – to fight infection
- Heat to where it is needed
- Carry water to the tissues
(Aside - it's about 7%-8% of our body weight and hwe have around 4-6 litres)
Define the components of blood
Blood is made up of four components
- Red blood cells, aka erythrocytes. 5m per cubic ml of blood. Carry oxygenated bloody, via haemoglobin around the body. They live for around 120 days, they go to the liver to die. There they are converted into bile and iron. The amount of haemoglobin the red blood cells can carry depends on the amount of iron in the blood.
- White blood cells - leucyctes. 5k-10k per cml blood. Soldiers. Fight off harmful bacteria and organisms.
- Platelets - stick together to form scabs 300k per cml of blood
- Plasma - 92% water. also carries Fats, amino acids, plasma proteins, sugar, hormones, waste like creatine and urea, essential tissue nutrients like iron and copper, enzymes, sodium – potassium – calcium – chloride – carbonate and bicarbonate.
What are the three types of blood vessels
Describe the structure of all three vessels
- Endothelium - the lining
- Muscle and elastic fibres - to help push that blood around the body
- Inelastic outside bit on the outside
What are the three steps of respiration?
- Pulmonary respiration. Inhalation and expiration. Inhalation: This is the inhalation through the mouth / nose taking oxygen into the lungs. Exhalation: expelling from lungs to atmosphere
- External respiration: This is when there is a gas exchange, within the air-spaces in the lungs as they oxygenate the blood
- Internal respiration: Where there is a a gas exchange between capillaries and tissue cells, as oxygen is delivered to the tissue around the body
- What is blood pressure?
- Why do we measure it?
- What affects it?
- What measurements are taken?
- The pressure of the blood against the walls of the blood vessels
- It's an indicator of health, especially in relation to the state of the blood vessels
- Diet, age, exercise, illnesses
- Systolic and diastolic
Do you know the stats for systolic and diastolic for optimal, high and low blood pressure?
Optimal less than 120, normal 130, high 130-139, over that to 160+ hypertention.
Optiomal, less than 80, normal less than 85, high, 85 - 89, over that hypertention
Which organs are used in respiration?
- Starts at the nose. Hairs catch pollution and warm the air
- Moves on to the pharynx - aka throat. This area is shared with the digestive tract.