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Flashcards in booby pathology Deck (47):
1

milk line

area along body from nipple to vulva area; any breast cancer can happen here along with extra nipples etc..

2

galactorrhea

milk production outside of lactation; NOT a Sx of BC; causes: nipple stimulation, prolactinoma of ant. pituitary, drugs

3

acute mastitis

S. aureus most common; bacterial; assoc. with breast feeding

4

acute mastitis presentation

warm erythematous breasts with pus discharge

5

acute mstitis Tx

continued breast feeding to facilitate drainage and dicloxacillin

6

periductal mastitis

inflammation of aubareolar ducts; usually seen in smokers (causes a relative vit A def.) causing a metaplasia to squamous cell in tubule then leading to blockage;

7

periductal mastitis presentation

subareolar mass with nipple retraction

8

mammary duct ectasia

inflammation of the duct and may dilate; this dilate can lead to debris build up then leading to a green brown nipple discharge; Bx shows chronic inflammation with plasma cells

9

mammary duct ectasia usually arise in

multiparous post menopasual women

10

fat necrosis of breast

necrosis of breast fat; usually related to trauma (doesnt have to be serious like a fight, it could be from a softball); mass on exam or calcification on mammography; Bx shows necrotic fat with assoc. calcifications and giant cells

11

fibrocystic change of breast

most common change in premenopausal woman; gross inspect has a blue domed appearance

12

fibrocystic change of breast presentation

vague changes to breast; "lumpy breast"; usually Upper outer quadrant

13

fibrocystic change is

benign; but other thcnages can indicate possibility for carcinoma

14

what changes in fibrocystic change of breast mean possible invasive carinoma risk

ductal hyperplasia and sclerosing adenosis (multiple more glands and fibrosis assoc with it); atypical hyperplasia

15

what changes in fibrocystic change of breast do not mean risk of invasive carcinoma

fibrosis, cysts, apocrine metaplasia

16

if seeing the fibrocystic chganges that increase risk for invasive carcinoma then that increases risk for which breast

both even if unilateral

17

intraductal papilloma

papillary growth that usually into the large duct; HAS BOTH fibrovascular projections lined by epi and myoepithelial cells; bloody nipple discharge in premenopausal woman; MUST distinguish from papillary carcinoma

18

distinguish between intraductal papilloma and intraductal carcinoma

carcinoma is usually post menopausal; carcinoma has NO myoepithelial cells

19

fibroadenoma

tumor of fibrous tissue and glands; most common benign neoplasm of breast; most common is premenopasual woman; estrogen sensitive; NO increased risk for carcinoma

20

fibroadenoma histo

well circumscribed, mobile marble like mass;

21

Phyllodes tumor

fibroadenoma like tumor with overgrowth of the FIBROUS component; leaf like projections seen; POST menopausal women; can be malignant

22

Cancer is most common usually in

POST menopasual

23

risk factors for BC

female gender, age (more often POST menopasual), early menarche/late menopause, obesity, atypical hyperplasia, first-degree relative with breast cancer

24

ductal carcinoma in-situ (general description)

maligannt cells in duct that are bound to duct;

25

pagets disease of nipple (general description)

malignant cells walk up duct to skin of nipple; DCIS that walked to nipple

26

invasice ductal carcinoma (general description)

malignant cells that invade beyond the duct

27

lobular carcinoma in situ (general description)

malignant cells in lobule of breast that STAY in lobule

28

invasive lobular carcinoma (general description)

lobular malignant cells that invade beyond lobule

29

DCIS

malignant porliferation of cells in duct; no invasion of basement membrane; califications on mammography; cells grown then die (leads to calcification); Comedo type: high grade cells with necrosis and dystrophic calcification in center of ducts

30

Paget disease of breast

DCIS that extends up ducts to skin of nipple; presents with nipple ulceration and erythema; almost ALWAYS linked to underlying carcinoma

31

IDC

calssically forms duct like structures; most common type of invasive carcinoma; presents as mass deteced on Px or mammography; advanced tumors may result in dimpling of the skin of retraction of nipple

32

IDC Bx

duct like strucures in desmoplastic stroma

33

subtypes of IDC

tubular, mucinous, medullary, infalmmatory

34

Tubular carinoma of IDC

creates tubules and resembles normal breast; will see desmoplastic stroma; will only have 1 cell type (normal have the epi and myo cells); very good prognosis

35

mucinous carcinoma of IDC

cells in pools of mucous; excellent prognosis; occurs mostly in elderly

36

inflammatory carcinoma of IDC

highly erythematous and swollen; doesnt respond to antibiotics; cancer in dermal lymphatics is seen; poor prognosis; keep in mind in pt with acute mastitis (make sure it respnds with Tx, if not then think this)

37

medullary carcinoma of IDC

high grade malignant cells with bunch of inflammatory cells; high in BRCA1 mutations

38

lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)

malignant prolifertion of cell sin lobuels; no invasion; no mass or calcification; dyscohesive cells lacking E-cadherin; often multifocal and B/L

39

Tx of LCIS

is a risk factor for invasive carcinoma; tamoxifen and close follow up

40

invasive lobular carcinoma

invades basement membrane of cell sin lobules; grows in a single file pattern; no duct formation due to lack of E-cadherin

41

predicitve factors with BC

ER, PR, Her2/neu

42

ER + and PR + is for what Tx

tamoxifen

43

Her2/neu Tx is

trastuzumab

44

"triple negative" BC

poor prognosis, african american women hasve hgiher chnace of

45

features suggesting hereditary BC

multiple first degree relatives with BC, tumor at premenopasual age, multiple tumors

46

BRCA1 and BRCA2

1 inc chance of breeast and ovarian; 2 breast carcinoma in males

47

Male breast cancer

subareolar mass under nipple in older males; usually IDC, assoc with BRCA2 and Klinefeter syndrome