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Flashcards in male reproductive Deck (54):
1

hypospadias

urethra opens on inferior surface of penis, due to urethral folds failing to close

2

epispadias

open of urethra on superior surface; due to abnormal position of genital tubercle; assoc with bladder exstrophy

3

condyloma acuminatum

benign wart; from HPV 6 or 11; koilocytic change

4

lympogranuloma vereum

necrotizing granulomatous inflammation of inguinal lymphatics and nodes

5

lymphogranuloma venereum cause

chlamydia trach. serotypes L1-3

6

lymphogranuloma vereum leads to

fibrosis and perianal itching causing rectral strictures

7

squamous cell carcinoma of penis

malignant proliferation of squamous cells on penis

8

SCC of penis risk fasctors

HPV, lack of circumcision

9

precursor lesions of SCC for penis

bowen disease (shaft, leukoplakia type lesion), erythroplasia of queyrat (glans, erythroplakia look), bowenoid papulosis (reddish papules, usually does not invade)

10

cryptorchidism

failure of testicles to descent to scrotal sac; most common congenital male repro abnorm; most cases resolve spontaneously

11

orchitis

testicle inflammation

12

orchitis causes

C. Trach (D-K), neisseria gonorrhoeae, E. coli, Pseudomonas, mumps virus, autoimmune orchitis

13

testicular torsion

twisitng of spermatic cord; leads to hemorrhagic infarction

14

congenital cause of testicular torsion

failure of testes to attach to inner lining of scrotum

15

presenation of testicular torsion

sudden testicular pain, absent cremasteric reflex; usually in adolescents

16

Varicocele

dilation of spermatic verin due to impaired drainage

17

varicocele presetation

scrotal swelling with "bag of worms" appearance; usually leftsided and can be associated with L-renal cell carcinoma; seen in a large percentage of infertile males

18

hydrocele

fluid collection in tunica vaginalis; assoc with incomplete closure of processus vaginalis (infants) or blockage of lymphatic drainage (adults)

19

hydrocele presentation

scrotal swelling that can be transluminated

20

testicular tumors

firm, painless mass that cannot be transilluminated

21

testicular tumors are not

Bx they are just removed

22

Germ cell tumor

most common, age of 15-40

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risks for germ cell tumor

cryptorchidism and klinefelter syndrome

24

germ cell tumors subtypes

seminoma and non-seminoma

25

Seminoma

malignamt tumor of large cells with clear cytoplasm and central nuclei; no hemorrhage or necrosis, may produce B-hCG

26

Seminoma prognosis

good, responds to therapy

27

embryonal carcinoma

malignant tumor of immature primitive cells that may form glands; hemorrage mass with necrosis; aggressive with early spread; chemotherapy may result in differentiation (may push it to a teratoma); may secrete AFP or B-hCG

28

yolk sac tumor

most common in children; yolk sac elements; AFP is characteristically elevated

29

yolk sac histology

shiller-duval body aka glomeruloid like structure

30

choriocarcinoma

malignant tumor of synctiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts; early spread to blood; B-hCG characteristic elevated (can lead to hyperthryroid or gynecomastia; its from the syncytioblasts (B-hCG))

31

teratoma

tumor of mature fetal tissue; derived from 2-3 embryo layers; malignant in males but not females; AFP and B-hCG may be increased

32

mixed germ cell tumors

germ cell tumors are usually mixed; prognosis is based on worse component

33

sex cord stromal tumors

benign; resemble sex cord stromal tissue of testicle

34

leydig cell tumor

sex cord tumor; produces androgen; early puberty in children; gynecomastia in adults

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leydig cell tumor histology

reinke crystals

36

sertoli cell tumor

comprised of tubules; clinically silent

37

lymphoma in testicle

most common cause of testicular mass in males > 60; usually Diffuse large B cell lymphona

38

acute prostatitis

usually for bacteria

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acute prostatitis young adults

chlamydia trachomatis, neisseria gonorrhoeae

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acute prostatitis older adults

E. coli, pseudomonas

41

acute prostatitis presentation

tender boggy prostate; dysuria with fever and chills; secretions have WBC and bacteria

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chronic prostatisis

secretions show WBC but NO bacteria

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chronic prostatis presents

dysuria with pelvic or LBP

44

BPH

hyperplasia of stroma and glands; age related change; no inc. risk for cancer; related to DHT; occurs in periurethral zone of prostate

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clinical features of BPH

problems starting/stopping urine stream; impaired bladder emptying; dribbling; hypertrophy bladder smooth wall muscle; microscopic hematuria; PSA slightly elevated

46

Tx of BPH

alpha 1 antagonist, selective alpha 1 A antagonist, 5alpha reductase inhbitor

47

prostatic adenocarcinoma

malignant proliferation of prostatic glands; most common caner in men

48

prostatic adenocarcinoma risk factors

age, race (africans then caucasion then asian), high saturated fat diet

49

prostatic adenocarcinoma location

posterior peri. of prostate

50

prostatic adenocarcinoma screening

50 with digital rectal exam and PSA; PSA > 10 is worrisome; low percentage free PSA is suggestive of cancer

51

prostatic adenocarcinoma histology

glands in normal tissue and also prominent nucleoli in cells

52

gleason grading system

based on architecture and NOT nuclear atypia

53

prostatic adenocarcinoma metastatis is usually to

lumbar spine; osteoblastic metastates; presents with LBP and increeased alkaline phosphatase, PSA and PAP (prostatic acid phosphatase)

54

Tx of prostatic adenocarcinoma

removal, GnRH analogs, androgen receptor inhibitor