Flashcards in Bordeaux Deck (68):
Which IGT is Bordeaux within?
Standard Bordeaux AOP Wine styles
Red White Rose or Clairet
a darker more aromatic style of rose that evokes the original claret wines shipped to England
Red Grapes Allowed for Bordeaux AOP
Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, Malbec, Carmenere
Why is Assemblage Important?
insurance for the blend, Merlot is harvested earlier (safety from late summer rains) and Cabernet Sauvignon can avoid early spring frosts
What is the most widely planted grape of Bordeaux
What type of soil does Merlot Prefer?
clay based soils, delays natural vigor
What soil does Cabernet Sauvignon prefer?
well-drained gravel, best for roots to dig deep, undergo water stress. has problems ripening in colder limestone/clay soils
What soil does Cabernet Franc prefer?
limestone soil, promotes acid
Typical Medoc Blend?
2/3 Cabernet Sauvignon 1/3 Blend of Merlot and Cabernet Franc
Typical Right Bank Blend?
3/4 Merlot to 1/4 Cabernet Frac
Where would you find Petit Verdot?
small amounts on left bank, virtually non existent on the right (b.c. LAST TO RIPEN)
What is another name for Malbec? Where is it used?
Pressac, On the Right Bank (like merlot performance wise)
Name two former grapes previously allowed for AOC reds?
Saint Macaire and Gros Vredot
Main Basic Bordeaux AOP Blanc
Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle
Other Bordeaux AOP Blanc blending grapes?What percentage of these is allowed?
30%, Ugni Blanc, Merlot Blanc, Colombard
What oak barrel is typically used? What size?
225L Barrique for top Chateaux, entry level usually large oak barrels
Climate of Bordeaux?
What bodies of water affect Bordeaux?
Atlantic, Gironde Estuary (Dordogne R. Bank) and Garrone L Bank)
any forrest that help bordeaux?
coastal pine forests protect Medoc from harsh winds
What are the biggest worries climate wise for Bordeaux?
Rain at harvest, Wet springs and Humidity cause mold and rot problems
Name 3 American Diseases that Affected Bordeaux around late 1800's
Oidium (powdery mildew) Phylloxera (Root Louse) Pernospera (downey Mildew)
What is the bordeaux mixture, what is it used for
lime copper sulfate and water used to combat pernospera (downy mildew)
What are the dutch drainage channels, when were they created?
What style of wine did the Dutch prefer?
sweet white wines, full bodied reds, germanic technique of burning sulfur candle in barrel
What style of wine did the British prefer?
Light red clairets
wine brokers of bordeaux?
courtiers, control trade and financial backing for wineries
CIVB? When established?
1948, Conseil Interprofessionnel du Vin de Bordeaux or Bordeaux Wine Council
Pruning methods for Left and Right Bank, and Sweet wines?
Left Bank- Double Guyot (cane prune)
Right Bank- Single Guyot (cane prune)
Dessert wine- Cordon Training (Spur Training) smaller berries--attract botrytis
Name two sorting methods popular in Bordeaux?
Optical Sorter and Density Sorter
How would you typically break the cap in Bordeaux?
Remontage= Pump over, helps yeasts form, can help with extraction
Typical wine making practices?
full destemming, chaptalization to gain alcohol and body, fermentation in large oak or epoxy lined concrete, assemblage, malo in barrel
Why was the 1855 classification created? By Who?
Napoleon III for the Universal Exposition in Paris based on price
What is Cru Artisan?
44 producers in Medoc, for 150 years, use the designation due to land work and craft for low finance operations, officially recognized in 2002
What is Cru Bourgeois?
1932 classification dividing properties into 3 categories: became official in 2003
Cru Bourgeois Superior
When was cru bourgeois reinstated?
2008, but only as a quality indicator, must apply regularly to blind tasting pannel
How long is the Medoc?
made up of Haut Medoc and surrounding communes, technically for wines north of St. Estephe in Bas-Medoc
What is the Medoc AOP like?
sparse vineyards intermingled with forest, pasture and mixed agriculture, lots of Jalles (reversal of swampland)
What is the wine focus of the Medoc?
devoted to red, only 123 acres of white planted, small modest estates with higher percentage of Merlot as better in waterlogged clay heavy soil
Dutch unearthed gravel mounds, deep gravel beds?
St Estephe AOP describe
Brawn, sturdy full bodied reds with slightly higher percentage of Merlot due to higher amount of clay in soil
Pauillac AOP Describe
Classic Claret, Gravel topsoil at its deepest point, Austere Pencil Shavings, Cigarbox, Black Currant
Saint Julien AOP Describe
Elegant Style, Ceder/Blackcurrant, 80% is classified AOP wine , less wine than other communes, but great quality
Two houses in Moulis AOP
Margaux AOP Describe
Largest Commune, thin sandy gravel over limestones "GRAVEL ISLAND" shallow crops more clay in outside areas, Floral exotic, finesses wines
Villages of Margaux AOP?
Soussans, Margaux, Cantenac, Labarde, Arsac
What was the first chateaux to estate bottle? When?
Mouton Rothschild in 1924 entire production
First major chateaux to opt out of Em Primeur?
Where is Ch. Pape Clement? as a gift to bordeaux when?
Graves AOP 1305
similar to medoc but sandier in South
mix of sand gravel and light clay
Graves AOP Styles?
white and red
When were Graves wines classified? how many classified?
1959, 13 estates for Red, 9 for White
When did Chateau La Tour Haut Brion produce its final vintage?
2005, RED now supply wine for La Mission Haut Brion second wine
When did Chateau Laville Haut-Brion produce its final vintage?
2008, WHITE now supply wine for La Mission Haut Brion
Pessac Leognan AOP created when?
1987, red and white wines
Leognan, Cadaujac, Canejan, Gradignan, Martillac, Merignac, Saint Medard d'Eyrans, Talence, Villenave d'Orons
Graves Supérieures AOP?
Sweet wine appellation for min RS 34 g/L
What sub AOPs are included in Graves Superieures AOP?
Sauternes, Barsac, Cerons
Sauternes AOP is made of of which villages?
Barsac, Preignac, Bommes, Fargues, Sauternes
What are two other names for noble rot?
Botryis Cinerea or Porriture Noble
What grapes are used for Sauternes production?
Semillon Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadelle
Sauternes is influenced by which rivers, how?
Ciron (cold morning mists) and Garonne (warm )
How are dry wines of this region categorized?
Bordeaux or Bordeaux Superior
Name two famous dry wines of the region
Yquems "Y" or Rieussec "R" (owned by Rothschild)
Minimum must weight for Sauternes