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Pharmacology-Exam #1 (Summer) > BPH > Flashcards

Flashcards in BPH Deck (41)
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1

What does epithelial/glandular tissue produce?

Prostatic secretions

2

Function of androgens in epithelial/glandular tissue?

Androgens stimulate epithelial tissue growth

3

What kind of sx's does epithelial/glandular tissue produce?

Static sx's

4

What does stromal/smooth muscle tissue contain?

alpha 1 adrenergic receptors

5

What does norepinephrine cause in stromal/smooth muscle tissue? result?

Smooth muscle contraction
Results in decreased urinary bladder emptying

6

What kind of sx's does stromal/smooth muscle tissue produce?

Dynamic sx's

7

What is the capsule of the prostate composed of?

Fibrous connective tissue + smooth muscle tissue

8

What does the capsule contain?

alpha 1 adrenergic receptors

9

When norepinephrine is stimulated, what happens to the capsule?

Contracts around the urethra

10

Define static

-Anatomic enlargement of prostate gland
-Physical block at bladder neck

11

What is the enlargement due to in static sx's?

1. Androgen stimulation of prostate gland
2. Estrogen stimulation of stromal tissue

12

What exacerbates static sx's?

1. Stress
2. Pain
*Increased alpha-adrenergic tone may precipitate excessive contraction of prostatic stromal tissue

13

Define Dynamic

-Excessive alpha adrenergic tone of the stromal compartment of prostate
-Contaction of prostate gland around urethra
-BUT normal prostate gland size

14

What type of sx's do we see in dynamic sx's?

Obstructive sx's

15

What is considered a more potent androgen than testosterone in the prostate?

DHT

16

Is type I or type II enzyme localized to the prostate?

Type II

17

What does DHT induce in the prostate?

Growth and Enlargement

18

What alpha adrenergic receptor is most selective to the prostate?

subtype-selective α1A-receptor

19

What enzyme converts testosterone and androstenedione to the active metabolite DHT?

5α-reductase

20

What medications can exacerbate BPH sx's?

1. Anticholinergics
2. Antihistamines
3. TCA's
4. Phenothiazines

21

Management of mild BPH

1. Watchful waiting
2. Behavior modifications
3. Return visits every 12-months for assessment of worsening si/sx's

22

Management of moderate/severe BPH

Drug therapy or Surgery

23

Why do you want to titrate older, immediate-release, second generation α1-adrenergic antagonists?List the name of these drugs

Minimize CV effects:
1. Orthostatic hypotension
2. First dose syncope
3. Dizziness

Terazosin and Doxazosin?

24

What is unique about 3rd generation α1-adrenergic antagonists? List the name

Tamsulosin:
Pharmacologically uroselective
Good alternative when experiencing ADE's with 2nd generation

25

What second generation α1-adrenergic antagonists has fewer CV ADE's? Why?

Extended release Alfuzosin
Functionally uroselective

26

Aside from CV effects, what is another major ADE of α1-adrenergic antagonists? And what patient education should you provide to your patient?

Floppy Iris syndrome
If cataract surgery, instruct patient to inform their opthalmologist they are taking an alpha blocker

27

α1-adrenergic antagonists dosing instructions

1. Start on lowest dose and titrate over several weeks
2. Take first dose at bedtime

28

What α1-adrenergic antagonist ADE is a urologic emergency? Patient education?

Priapism
Seek medical attention if painful erection >4 hrs

29

What do you want to monitor with α1-adrenergic antagonist?

1. Blood pressure
2. HR

30

What patient are 5α-reductase inhibitors primarily used in?

-Large prostate: >40 g
-Want to avoid surgery
-Can't tolerate α1-adrenergic antagonists SE's

31

List the 5α-reductase inhibitors

1. Finasteride
2. Duasteride

32

5α-reductase inhibitors ADE's

1. Decreased libido
2. ED
3. Ejaculation disorders
4. Gynecomastia

33

What do you want to monitor in 5α-reductase inhibitors?

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA): Decrease by 50% IF pt is adherent to therapy

34

PDE-1 Effect/MOA

Dynamic effects:
Smooth muscle relaxation of prostate, bladder neck, and prostatic urethra

35

What do you want to monitor in PDE-I ?

1. BP
2. Pulse
3. Hearing loss- Discontinue drug

36

Anticholinergic Effects on the bladder

Relaxes detrusor muscle of the bladder

37

List the β3-adrenergic agonist

Mirabegron

38

β3-adrenergic agonist (Mirabegron
0 MOA

Increases cAMP
Relaxes detrusor muscle

39

Overall effects of β3-adrenergic agonist (Mirabegron)

1. Decreases irritative sx's
2. Increases urinary bladder capacity
3. Increases intervals between voiding

40

β3-adrenergic agonist ADE's

1. HTN, Increased HR
2. Diarrhea/constipation
3. Impaired cognition

41

What do you want to monitor in β3-adrenergic agonist?

1. BP
2. Bowel habits