Flashcards in BPH, Bladder, and Prostate Deck (13):
How common is bladder cancer?
Represents the most common urinary tract neoplasm. 52,000 new cases are recorded each year in the US and 10,000 die from this cancer
Which sex has a higher incidence of bladder cancer?
Men 60 - 80 years. Three times over women. I rare under the age of 50
How common is bladder cancer compared to renal cancer?
Twice more common than renal but accounts for the same number of deaths (renal is more fatal then!)
What tissue lines the urinary tract where bladder cancer occurs?
What is the most important risk factor for bladder cancer?
Cigarette smoking - about 4 fold proportional to the total number smoked
Besides cigarette smoking, what are other risk factors for bladder cancer?
1. Azo dyes, chemicals used in rubber industry, and textile printing
2. In Egypt, infection with Schistosoma haematobium, a parasite, can also lead to cancer of the urinary bladder
3. Drugs such as Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxin) and radiation therapy to the pelvis, cervix, rectum, or prostate
What is Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)?
Prostatic cells express a specific antigen called PSA.
Can PSA be used as a tumor marker?
Detectable levels after prostatectomy suggest persistent local or metastatic disease
What is Bone Alkaline Phosphatase (BAP)?
Is another blood enzyme, but is not expressed by the prostatic cells (like PAP and PSA are), but is abundant in W
When is BAP released?
When prostatic carcinoma cells metastasize to the bone and evoke an osteoblastic reaction. The proliferation of osteoblasts results in an increase in BAP
What type of cancer is prostate cancer?
True gland cancer = adenocarcinoma
What is BPH?
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia or Nodular Hyperplasia of Prostate - a common, reactive, benign hyperplastic lesion that may obstruct the flow of urine, related to male hormonal changes that occurs with aging