STDs and Diseases of Penis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in STDs and Diseases of Penis Deck (54):
1

What is torsion of the testes?

Torsion of the spermatic cord, if complete, produces severe pain and infarction of the testicular germ cells within a few hours

2

What is the most common etiology of torsion of the testes?

Presents shortly after vigorous physical exercise

3

What heralds the diagnosis of torsion of the testes?

Abrupt onset of scrotal pain followed by swelling.

4

What is the histologic effect of torsion of the testes?

Swollen, firm testes show both gross and microscopic features of hemorrhagic infarction

5

What type of cancer is carcinoma of the penis?

SCC

6

What are Bowen Disease?

Dysplastic epidermal lesions on the shaft of the penis, sharply demarcated, erythromatous, usually occurring in middle or older-aged men

7

What are dysplastic lesions of the the glans and prepuce termed?

Erythroplasia of Queyrat

8

In which men does Erythroplasia of Queyrat occur?

Uncircumcised men and appear as shiny, soft erythromatous plaque on the glans and foreskin

9

How frequent is carcinoma of the penis is the US?

Rare. Affect 1-2 men per 100,000 (.5% of cancers)

10

Why do other parts of the world have a higher rate of carcinoma of the penis?

Places where circumcision is not practiced and poor hygiene is present - this cancer is greater than 10% of male cancers

11

What is the average age of diagnosis of carcinoma of the penis?

60 years of age

12

What is the usual growth rate and spread of carcinoma of the penis?

Usually slow growing with local metastasis

13

What is smegma?

Product of penile coronal glands, desquamated cells of keratin debris.

14

What is a major risk factor of carcinoma of the penis?

Smegma, that accumulates under the prepuce of uncircumcised males, and it is believed to play a role in prolonged contact carcinogen for the mucosal cells of the glans

15

Which HPV types have been suggested for the pathogenesis of carcinoma of the penis?

HPV types 16 and 18

16

What does SCC of the penis present as?

An ulcerated and hemorrhagic mass on the glans or prepuce. May be ulcerated or exophytic-fungating grossly

17

What is the histological microscopic quality of carcinoma of the penis?

Most are well-differentiated, focally keratinizing, SCCs, that may or may not be invasive into the dermis

18

Where does the carcinoma of the penis spread?

Spreads locally to inguinal and iliac lymph nodes before spreading rarely to distant organs

19

Where do initial vesicular lesions of Herpes Genitalis appear?

Vagina, cervix, vulva, perineum, and glans and shaft of the penis

20

Where does the herpes virus travel and become latent?

Travels up the axon and becomes latent in sensory (lumbar or sacral) ganglion cells

21

T/F Treatment for HSV-2 is the same way as for HSV-1

T

22

What is Peyronie's Disease?

Malady of unknown etiology characterized by focal, asymmetric, fibrous induration of the shaft of the penis resulting in penile curvature and pain during erection

23

What is primary syphilis?

Lesion at site of inoculation, the spirochetes multiply and a local, non-tender ulcer called a Chancre usually forms in 2-10 weeks

24

How does the primary syphilis ulcer heal?

Spontaneously

25

What happens to primary syphilis after it heals spontaneously?

Spirochetes spread widely in tissues and 1-3 months later, secondary lesions may appear as a maculopapular rash

26

Where do secondary syphilis lesions occur usually after the primary syphilis heals spontaneously?

Appear on palms and soles, or as moist papules on the skin and mucous membranes

27

What is secondary syphilis?

Moist lesions on the genitals called condylomata lata.

28

What may result in secondary syphilis if there is organ involvement?

Meningitis, nephritis, or a hepatitis.

29

What are organ lesions from secondary syphilis rich in?

Spirochetes and are highly infectious.

30

What findings are often part of secondary syphilis?

Lymphadenopathy, arthritis and fever.

31

Will secondary syphilis heal spontaneously?

Yes.

32

What is tertiary syphilis?

Occurs years after the initial infection and most frequently involves the aorta (80-85%) with aneurysm formation or aortic regurgitation

33

How does Neurosyphlis occur?

Infection from tertiary syphilis involving the CNS (5-10%), from a chronic meningitis to Tabes Dorsalis

34

What is Tabes Dorsalis?

From tertiary syphilis, Spirochetal damage to the sensory nerves of the dorsal root resulting in ataxia, loss of pain sensation and absence of deep tendon reflexes

35

What is General Paresis? Which syphilis type causes it?

Caused by tertiary syphilis. Caused by invasion of the brain by spirochetes and manifested by progressive loss of physical and mental functions with mood alterations, terminating in severe dementia

36

What are Gumma granulomas?

Occurs with tertiary syphilis, granulomas in the skin, bones, and liver which grossly are gray-white and rubbery that heal by scarring

37

What is gonorrhea?

Causes the third most common STD (behind venereal warts and Chlamydia)

38

What species is affected by gonorrhea?

Disease only in humans, usually symptomatic in males but asymptomatic in females

39

What are additional sources of infection for gonorrhea?

Anorectal area and pharynx

40

What are the virulence factors of gonorrhea?

Pili (which allows adherence of the organism to host cells, also serves to prevent phagocytosis and IgA protease which hydrolyzes host secretory IgA

41

What is the pathogenesis of gonorrhea?

Penetrates the mucous membranes of the urethra, causing inflammation (urethritis)

42

What are the complications of gonorrhea?

Painful urination, purulent urethral discharge, epididymitis, prostatis, and urethral strictures

43

Can women develop gonorrhea?

Yes, but urethritis is more likely to be asymptomatic with minimal urethral discharge

44

How is the cervix affected by gonorrhea?

The columnar epithelium is infected becoming reddened and friable, with purulent exudate

45

What are the symptoms of gonorrhea in women?

Complaint of lower abdominal discomfort, pain with sexual intercourse (dyspareunia), and a purulent vaginal discharge

46

Can asymptomatic women transmit gonorrhea?

Yes,

47

What can a gonorrheal infection of the cervix progress to?

PID, endometritis, salpingitis, and oophoritis

48

What is the other major cause of PID besides gonorrhea?

Chlamydia

49

What is Trichomonas vaginalis?

A pear-shaped organism with a central nucleus and four anterior flagella. Exists only s a trophozoite with no cyst form

50

How is Trichomonas vaginalis transmitted?

Sexually and is found in the female vagina and male urethra

51

What percentage of women in the US harbor the Trichomonas vaginalis organism?

Roughly 25-50% and it is one of the most common infections worldwide.

52

What are the sequelae of Trichomonas vaginalis?

Water, foul-smelling greenish discharge accompanied by itching and burning.

53

Are men usually symptomatic if they gave Trichomonas vaginalis?

Usually asymptomatic - about 10% have urethritis

54

How is diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis done?

By wet mount prep of vaginal or prostatic secretions for moving trophozoites