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Flashcards in Brain Anatomy Deck (55)
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1

What does the midbrain connect?

Connects:

  • Pons to cerebrum
  • Superior peduncles connect midbrain to cerebellum

2

What does the Motor Loop (putamen loop) do?

Location:

  • Originates in precentral motor & postcentral somatosensory areas
  • Projects to and excites putamen neurons

Functions:

  • Reinforce selected movement patterns
  • Anticipatory movements

3

What lobe is Broca's Area located in?

Frontal Lobe (typically LEFT hemisphere)

4

What does the Epithalamus do?

  1. Habenular Nuceli: integrate olfactory, visceral & somatic afferent pathways
  2. Pineal Gland:
    • Secretes hormones that influence the pituitary gland and several other organs
    • influences circadian rhythm

5

What do Association Fibers do?

Connect different portions of the cerebral hemispheres, allowing cortex to function as an integrated whole

6

What do Projection Fibers do?

Connect cerebral hemispheres with other portions of the brain and spinal cord

7

What does the Visual Association Cortex do?

Process visual stimuli

8

What are the basic functions of the Limbic System?

Instincts and emotions to preserve the individual:

  • Feeding
  • Aggression
  • Endocrine aspects of sexual response

9

What important structure is located in the Parietal Lobe?

Postcentral gyrus

10

What are the 3 types of white matter?

  1. Transverse (commissural) fibers
  2. Projection fibers
  3. Association fibers

11

What 4 structures make up the Diencephalon ?

  1. Thalamus
  2. Subthalamus
  3. Hypothalamus
  4. Epithalamus

12

What are the 3 components of the Brainstem?

  1. Midbrain
  2. Pons
  3. Medulla Oblongata

13

What does the Primary Visual Cortex do?

Receives/processes visual stimuli

14

Where is the Postcentral Gyrus located?

Parietal Lobes

15

What do the Superior and Inferior Colliculus do?

  • Superior Colliculus: relay station for vision and visual reflexes
  • Inferior Colliculus: relay station for hearing and auditory reflexes

16

What lobe is the Primary Auditory Cortex located in?

Temporal Lobe

17

What does the Medulla Oblongata do?

  • Connects spinal cord with pons
  • Corticospinal tracts cross in pyramids
  • Cranial nerve nuclei: hypoglossal, dorsal nucleus or vagus & vestibulocochlear
  • Important centers for: cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor centers

18

What does the Subthalamus do?

Involved in control of several functional pathways for sensory, motor, & reticular function

19

The Temporal Lobe is made up of these three main structures/areas

  1. Primary Auditory Cortex
  2. Associative Auditory Cortex
  3. Wernicke's Area

20

What does the Primary Auditory Cortex do?

Receives/processes auditory stimuli

21

What is white matter?

myelinated nerve fibers located centrally

22

What main structures are in the Midbrain ?

  • Cerebral Peduncles 
    • anterior: substania nigra
    • posterior: tegmentum
  • Superior & Inferior Colliculus
  • Periaqueductal Gray

23

What do Transverse Fibers do?

Interconnect 2 hemispheres

(corpus callosum, anterior commissure, & hippocampal commissure

24

What lobe is Wernicke's Area located in?

Temporal Lobe (typically LEFT hemisphere)

 

25

What does the Periaqueductal Gray do?

Contains endorphin-producing cells & descending autonomic tracts

26

What does the Limbic Circuit do?

  • Originates in prefrontal and limbic areas of cortex
  • Organize behaviors and for procedural learning

27

What does the Pons do?

  • Connects medulla oblongata to midbrain, allowing passage of important ascending & descending tracts
  • Anterior basal part acts as a bridge to cerebellum (middle cerebellar peduncle)
  • Midline raphe nuclei projects widely and are important for modulating pain and controlling arousal 
  • Tegmentum contains several important cranial nerve nuclei: abducens, trigeminal, facial, vestiobulocochlear

28

What does the Thalamus do?

  1. Sensory Nuclei:
    • Integrate & relay sensory info from body, face, retina, cochlea, and taste receptors to cerebral cortex & subcortical regions (smell is the exception)
  2. Motor Nuclei
    • Relay motor info from cerebellum and globus pallidus to precentral motor cortex
  3. Other Nuclei
    • Assist in integration of visceral and somatic functions

29

What is the Basal Ganglia and what does it do?

  • Masses of gray matter deep within the cerebral hemispheres
    • striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus & substantia nigra
  • Forms an associated motor system with other nuclei in the subthalamus and midbrain

30

What lobe is the Precentral Gyrus located in?

Frontal Lobe