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HUBS191 Human Movement and Sensation > Brain and skull > Flashcards

Flashcards in Brain and skull Deck (49)
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1

number of skull bones

  • 28: 
  • 8 cranium
  • 14 facial
  • 6 ear

2

external bones of face

  • 2 zygomatic (cheek bones)
  • 2 maxillary (each side of nose)
  • 1 mandible (jaw)
  • 2 nasal (base of nose)

3

suture

  • joints between cranial bones
  • interdigitate so minimal movement

4

8 bones of skull (7 external, 1 internal)

  • frontal (1 at front) 
  • 2 parietal (1 on either side on top in middle)
  • occipital (1 at back)
  • 2 temporal (1 on either side at bottom of cranium)
  • sphenoid (1 directly behind face spanning both sides)
  • ethmoid bone (internal)

5

3 sutures

  1. coronal suture - frontal and parietal
  2. lambdoidal suture - occipital and parietal
  3. squamous suture - temporal and parietal

6

fontanelle

  • gaps between sutures
  • not joined at birth to allow growth

7

3 meninges

1) dura mater 2) arachnoid 3) pia mater

8

dura mater

  • Outer-most layer of meninges
  • Dense and fibrous – tough
  • Two layers - Inner layer forms the dural reflections
  • Space between the layers forms venous sinuses

9

3 Dural reflections

  1. Falx cerebri -  separates cerebral hemispheres -  median plane
  2. Falx cerebelli - separates cerebellar hemispheres - median plane
  3. Tentorium cerebelli - separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum - horizontal plane

10

venous sinus

  • Form between outer and inner layers
  • Venous drainage from the brain

11

arachnoid

  • Layer beneath the dura mater
  • Contains blood vessels
  • Does not extend into sulci (‘valleys’)
  • sits of spidery legs creating sub-arachnoid space

12

Subarachnoid space

  • Between the arachnoid and the pia mater
  • Filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

13

Arachnoid granulations

  • Perforate the dura
  • Transport “old” CSF from subarachnoid space into venous sinus

14

Pia mater

  • Transparent and delicate
  • Blood vessels in arachnoid sit on top of pia mater
  • Adheres to brain and follows gyri and sulci

15

meninges of spinal cord

cover spinal cord is same way as brain

16

ventricular system

  • Network of interconnected “spaces” within the brain
  • Filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which nourishes and protects the brain
  • CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, which lines the ventricles

17

CSF

nourishes and protects brain

18

choroid plexus

produces CSF

19

ventricular system

20

Circulation of the CerebroSpinal Fluid 

  • Circulates through ventricles and subarachnoid space of the brain and spinal cord
  • Route:
  1. Lateral ventricle
  2. 3rd ventricle
  3. cerebral aqueduct
  4. 4th ventricle
  5. subarachnoid space

21

hydrocephalus

  • caused by abnormal accumulation of CSF in the ventricles of the brain
  • Leads to increased intracranial pressure inside the skull,
  • Progressive enlargement of the head,
  • Other symptoms include convulsion, tunnel vision, mental disability. 

22

lobes, sulci and gyri of brain

23

function of occipital lobe

vision

24

function of parietal lobe

sensory

25

function of temporal lobe

memory and hearing

26

function of posterior front lobe

motor

27

function of anterior frontal lobe

pre-frontal cortex

28

29

function of pre-motor cortex

planning of movement

30

function of primary motor cortex (post-central gyrus)

execution of movement