Nervous System Flashcards Preview

HUBS191 Human Movement and Sensation > Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (60)
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1

2 types of cells in nervous system

glia and neurons

2

4 types of CNS glia

astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, oligodendrocytes

3

function of astrocytes

  • supply nutrients to neurons 
  • ensheath blood capillaries
  • transmit information

4

function of microglia

  • immune cells of CNS 
  • engulf microorganisms and debris

5

function of ependymal cells

  • line fluid-filled spaces of brain and spinal cord
  • have cilia to circulate CSF

6

function of oligodendrocytes

  • support nerve fibres
  • ensheath them with myelin

7

only type of PNS glia and function

- schwann cell - support peripheral nerve fibres - ensheath them with myelin

8

myelin sheath composition and function

- lipid wrapped around neuron - increases conduction velocity

9

input zone of neuron

- dendrites - receives chemical signal from other neurons

10

summation zone of neuron

- axon hillock - makes decision about whether to pass information on

11

conduction zone of neuron

- axon - carry electrical signals between brain areas, to and from spinal cord, or to and from peripheral sensory receptors

12

output zone of neuron

- axon terminals - contact with input zone of other neurons - release neurotransmitter

13

3 types of synapse

1) axodendritic 2) axosomatic 3) axoaxonic

14

multiple sclerosis cause and symptoms

  • demyelination caused by autoimmunity or infection
  • impaired nerve conduction
  • weakness, uncoordination, visual and speech impairment

15

afferent

- information that goes into the brain (up spinal cord) - sensory

16

efferent

- information that comes out of brain (down spinal cord) - motor

17

nucleus

group of cell bodies in CNS

18

tract

bundle of axons in CNS

19

Grey matter

group of cell bodies in cerebral cortex

20

white matter

bundle of axons in cerebral cortex

21

ganglion

group of cell bodies in PNS

22

nerve

bundle of axons in PNS

23

somatic information

  • stuff we are aware of and have control over 
  • voluntary muscle control (somatic efferent)
  • sensory information we are aware of (somatic afferent e.g. vision)

24

Autonomic information

  • stuff we are not aware of and have no control over
  • involuntary muscle control (autonomic efferent e.g. heartbeat)
  • sensory (visceral) information we don't know about (autonomic afferent e.g. blood pressure)

25

6 features of somatic motor (efferent) pathway

- voluntary control - one neuron between CNS and effector - cell body in spinal cord - axon in spinal nerves (PNS) - neurotransmitter is ACh - effectors are skeletal muscle fibres always excitatory (EPSPs caused by ACh at NMJ)

26

motor unit

- one neuron and all the muscle fibres it innervates - one neuron => one muscle fibre or one neuron => several muscle fibres

27

5 features of autonomic motor (efferent) pathway

  1. involuntary control
  2. two neurons between CNS and effector (neuron 1 has cell body in CNS and axon in PNS, myelinated; neuron 2 has cell body and axon in PNS, unmyelinated)
  3. neurotransmitter at first synapse is ACh, 2nd is ACh or NE
  4. effectors are smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, adipose tissue
  5. excitatory or inhibitory (EPSPs or IPSPs)

28

features of neuron 1 of autonomic motor pathway

  • cell body in CNS
  • axon extends outside CNS 
  • synapse in autonomic ganglion
  • pre-ganglionic neuron
  • neurotransmitter = ACh
  • myelinated

29

features of neuron 2 of autonomic motor pathway

  • cell body in PNS, autonomic ganglion
  • axon extends to effector organ
  • synapse in effector organ
  • post-ganglionic neuron
  • neurotransmitter = ACh or noradrenaline (norepinephrine)
  • unmyelinated

30

subdivisions of autonomic nervous system

sympathetic and parasympathetic