Flashcards in Brainscape China Booklet 1 - 1860-70 Deck (30)
What does 'imperial' refer to in China?
The rule of dynasties and emperors.
Where did the Qing dynasty come from?
What was a 'Tributary State'?
Countries that paid tax/tribute to China in exchange for protection and trade. e.g. Korea, Tibet, Vietnam
Who was Confucius?
A 5th Century BC scholar whose philosophy of accepting fate, influenced Chinese society for thousands of years.
What was a banner army?
The emperor relied on the armies of powerful families from the provinces.
Explain the Mandate of Heaven.
The force of history that justifies the holding of power by those in authority. Floods, famine, drought, war could overthrow a dynasty.
What was Western Imperialism?
The spread of economic and political control by European countries over parts of Asia and Africa.
There were 50 Treaty Ports by 1900. What were they?
Trading areas controlled by westerners. These were won through a series of 'unequal' treaties.
Name THREE western powers interested in China.
Britain, France, Germany, America.
Who was the emperor in 1860?
Xian Feng (also spelt Hsienfeng)
Who was Cixi?
Concubine who became Xianfeng's Empress and ruled on his behalf. Later regent for son and nephew.
Explain the Canton System for trade with foreigners.
13 merchants were chosen by the imperial government to trade with foreigners from Canton. NO private trade was allowed.
Why was the Canton System good for the Imperial Government?
Controlled movement of goods, set prices, collected tariffs, Consoo fund made Emperor money, kept foreigners in Canton
What goods did foreigners want from China? Name 3.
Silk, porcelain, tea.
Who started using opium to encourage trade?
British private merchants, NOT the East India Company which was sanctioned by the British Crown.
Name a cause and event in the First Opium War 1839-42.
Cause: Emperor seized opium and arrested British traders, British sent 16 warships and 4,000 troops, sea battle and destruction of Chinese junks(ships) - remember monkeys?,
Give THREE main results of the Treaty of Nanjing 1842.
5 Treaty Ports including Shanghai, Hong Kong to Britain, $21 million compensation to British, Canton System abolished, release of all British prisoners, fixed rates on trade goods
Britain secured article 8: they were a 'most-favoured nation'. What does this mean?
Any deals or treaties secured with other nations must also be extended to Britain.
What does extraterritoriality mean?
When foreigners are not subject to the laws of the country, but can only be tried using their native laws.
What was the Arrow Incident, 1856?
A Chinese ship, registered through Hong Kong, was seized and the sailors arrested for piracy in Canton. It's British registration had run out, but it still flew a British flag. The Chinese government were legally justified, but the British considered this an attack on their extraterritoriality.
What were the events of the Second Anglo-Chinese War?
British attacked Canton, Shanghai and north towards Tianjin. The British, with support from the French, Russians and Americans took the Dagu forts and moved on Beijing.
What does the quote 'swept them away like dry leaves in a late autumn wind' refer to?
Mongolian Cavalry of 3000 defeated in one day, Dagu bamboo stakes and soldiers' martial arts were no match for cannons and guns.
As the foreigners attacked Beijing in 1856, where was emperor Xian Feng?
Hunting, as an excuse to retreat.
The Treaty of Tianjin was signed in 1858. What were the 5 big wins for foreigners?
Extraterritoriality, all inland waterways were opened to foreign ships, foreign ambassadors to live in Beijing, 10 new treaty ports, free movement for Christian missionaries.
Name one domestic rebellion in the 1850s-60s that further weakened the Qing.
Taiping Rebellion, Nian Rebellion, Muslim Rebellions.
What does 'yi' mean and what does it suggest about feelings towards foreigners?
Yi means 'alien'. Most Chinese, especially educated, thought that foreigners were barbarians and called them foreign devils.
Why did Chinese kill 17 French missionaries and burn 4 churches in Tianjin, 1870?
Rumours orphans were being killed by nuns and their limbs used for aphrodisiacs before sex play between monks and nuns. Heightened anti-foreign feeling.
What was the Self-Strengthening movement 1865?
Attempt to modernise China, e.g. Jiangnan Arsenal and Fuzhou Shipyard.
What was the Zongi Yamen?
Zongi Yamen = Foreign Ministry set up un 1865, the first Ambassador to England was Guo Song Tao