Flashcards in Brainscape China Booklet 4 1958-69 Deck (30)
Name one term of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance 1950.
Korean War, Eastern Alliance, Soviet advisors for Chinese 1st 5 year plan, loans, military development (nuclear capability)
Why did Khrushchev's secret speech initiate tensions between the Soviet Union and China in 1956?
DeStalinisation, no worldwide communist revolution, Peaceful Coexistence, PRC not consulted.
What was peaceful coexistence?
Khrushchev's theory that communism and capitalism could thrive, separately, without conflict.
Name 3 demands Russia made of China in 1958.
Joint Pacific Fleet, Soviet submarine radio stations in China, Soviet naval repairs in Chinese ports.
Why did the Russian demand of 1958 upset Mao and PRC?
Violation of Chinese sovereignty, Great Power Chauvinism, no Chinese nuclear programme yet, China in USSR shadow.
What was Great Power Chauvinism?
Mao's idea that the Great Powers (e.g. USA, Britain, USSR etc.) excluded China from becoming a rising power and having the same rights as them.
Name the two islands bombed in the Taiwan Crisis of 1958.
Quemoy and Matsu
Why did the PRC bomb Chinese islands in the Taiwan Strait in 1958?
Concerned that these islands would be a springboard for an American invasion of China from Taiwan, test relations with USSR (vs USA and to get nuclear programme), propaganda at home to launch the Great Leap Forward.
What year did the Soviet Union withdraw economic assistance and advisors from China?
How were the fall of Peng Duhai (1959) and Lin Biao (1971) linked to the USSR?
Suspected Soviet spies in a plot to usurp Mao.
What was Mao's view of nuclear weapons and the USSR/USA MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction) policy?
Mao was against MAD and Peaceful Coexistence. He felt Soviets were giving in to western capitalists and that nuclear war would benefit the growth of worldwide socialism.
Why did the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 upset China?
Cuba would get nuclear missiles (located there by USSR vs USA), but not China. Khrushchev backed down to USA
Why did China join Albania in the Sino-Albanian Alliance of 1960-78?
They had had similar feelings about USSR - both criticised Peaceful Coexistence, both had Stalinist tendencies so were worried about deStalinisation, China was emerging as the champion of developing socialist countries and wanted a foothold in Eastern Europe.
How did the Sino-Indian War 1962 further tensions with the USSR?
No Soviet support for China, Khrushchev accused Mao of incompetence in Tibet, Soviets supplied Indian forces.
Give FIVE reasons for Tibetan Uprisings 1950-62.
PLA conquest in 1950, prohibition of Buddhism, suppression of protests, 'Reign of Terror' - destruction of Tibetan culture e.g. prohibited language, Mandarin imposed, Dalai Lama escaped to India, Great Leap Forward forced on Tibet - worst death rate in famine.
What was the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963?
USSR, USA and Britain. Cease all nuclear ground testing, prevent non-nuclear countries from gaining capability (CHINA!!)
How did China finally get nuclear capability in 1964?
After waiting 14 years and Soviet Advisors leaving in 1960, Chinese scientists are able to create nuclear weapons using salvaged Soviet documents.
What did Soviet Foreign Secretary Marshall Malinovsky say in 1964 that fed Mao's paranoia of a coup?
We have removed our fool Khrushchev, you should follow by deposing your fool, Mao'.
Name FOUR reasons for the launch of the Cultural Revolution (1966-76) other than Mao's suspicion of a Soviet backed coup.
Return to pure communism after Deng and Liu's reforms to stop Great Famine, repair Mao's reputation after Famine, establish a 'Cult of Mao', maintain the idea of continuous revolution.
Who organised the Cultural Revolution 1966-76?
CCRG - Central Cultural Revolution Group controlled by radical Maoists including Gang of Four and Mao's wife Jiang Qing.
Who did the CCRG use as their instrument to carry out revolution?
Youth - university students, high school students, Red Guard, young factory workers until 1968 and then the PLA.
Name TWO economic results of the Cultural Revolution 1966-76.
Poor work attendance, Red Guard travelling rails blocking transport of goods, food shortages in cities, poor school attendance creates 'brain drain', education completely politicised so little technical education, no research or development
Name TWO political results of the Cultural Revolution 1966-76.
Key members of CCP and PRC targeted, in particular modernisers like Deng Xiaoping. Some begin to lose faith in CCP, especially after fall of Lin Biao
Name TWO social results of the Cultural Revolution 1966-76.
10,000 labour camps opened, anarchy, attacks on churches, torture, murder, gang fighting, theft, vandalism, education disruption (35% had education past age 12 in 1976, 130 million students stopped attending school), population doubled, culture (art, music, theatre, literature) completely sterilised - Maoist propaganda
Name TWO diplomatic (international relations) results of the Cultural Revolution 1966-76
Attacks on foreign embassies (Soviet surrounded, Dutch besieged, Indian secretaries beaten, British burned), emboldened Chinese against foreigners e.g. USSR.
Why was there military conflict between China and the USSR in 1969? (Two background reasons)
Border disputes in Manchuria and Xinjiang, 4,189 incidents between troops, strong Soviet military presence along the border, Cultural Revolution emboldened Chinese against foreigners.
What happened at the Ussuri River in March 1969?
Chinese regiment ambushed Soviet soldiers on Zhenbao Island, Soviet's respond with missile attack. Does not escalate further.
What did the Soviets suggest destroying at LopNur, Xinjiang further provoking China?
Chinese nuclear sites.
Was it likely that the USSR wanted to go to war with China in 1969?
NO, but China thought they wanted to. USSR could have crushed China in 1969 if they wanted to. They were dealing with issues in Eastern Europe, economic problems at home and navigating Peaceful Coexistence with the west - China was not a priority or a considered a major threat.