Brainstem and cranial nerves Flashcards Preview

Neuroscience > Brainstem and cranial nerves > Flashcards

Flashcards in Brainstem and cranial nerves Deck (50)
Loading flashcards...
1

What does the pineal gland do?

Circadian rhythm generation for hormone release via secretion of melatonin - trained via the eye

2

What is the purpose of the superior colliculus?

Eye and neck movement

3

What is the purpose of the inferior colliculus?

Auditory response (protective reflex)

4

What is the only cranial nerve that emerges from the back the brainstem?

Trochlear nerve (CN IV)

5

What are the dorsal columns responsible for?

fine touch and proprioception

6

What muscle does the trochlear nerve innervate?

The superior oblique muscle

7

What makes the roof of the midbrain?

The superior and inferior colliculi (tectum)

8

What is CN I, where can you find it and what does it innervate?

Olfactory nerve (sensory)
Inferior surface of frontal lobes
Olfactory nerves pass through Cribriform plate -> olfactory bulbs -> olfactory tract
Olfactory epithelium

9

What is CN II, where can you find it and what does it innervate?

Optic nerve (sensory)
-> innervates retina
Crosses over at the optic chiasm

10

What are the mamillary bodies for and where are they?

In the hypothalamus; important in memory and part of the limbic system

11

What is CN III, where is it found and what does it innervate?

Occulomotor nerve
Midbrain, in the midline
Goes to superior, inferior and medial rectus and inferior oblique, levator palpebrae -> movement of eyeball

Pupillary constrictor and ciliary muscle (PNS); for constriction and accommodation

12

What is the purpose of the cerebellar peduncles?

Connects the cerebellum to the brainstem.

13

What are the main fibres in the cerebellar peduncles?

Corticospinal tract; communicates with alpha motor neurones -> musculature

14

How do you easily identify the pons?

Transverse bridging fibres (hides the corticospinal tract)-connects the cerebellum via the middle cerebral peduncles.

15

What is CN V?

Trigeminal nerve (ophthalmic, maxillar, mandibular);
Sensory; face, scalp, cornea, nasal and oral cavities, cranial dura mater

The smaller root is the motor (muscles of mastication, tensor tympani muscle)

16

What three nerves emerge at the ponto-medullary junction?

The Abducens, Facial and Vestibulococchlear.

17

What is CN VI?

Abducens; innervates the (extrinsic) lateral rectus muscle, movement of the eyeball
The nucleus is located in the pons

18

What is CN VII?

Facial nerve; sensory-anterior 2/3 of tongue for taste
Motor- muscles of facial expression, tension on bones of middle ear
PNS; salivary and lacrimal glands

19

What is CN VIII?

Vestibulococchlear; vestibular apparatus (position and movement of head)

20

What is CN IX?

Glossopharyngeal;
General taste and sensation

21

What is CN X?

Vagus;
general sensation, chemo- and baroreception visceral sensation, speech and swallowing
Control of cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts

22

What is CN XI?

Accessory nerve; sternomastoid and trapezius muscles, movement of head and shoulders
Special visceral efferent

23

What is CN XII?

Hypoglossal; Intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue

24

Where are the 'pyramids' found and their purpose?

Found in the medulla, it is the re-emergence of the corticospinal tract. This is where pyramidal decussation occurs (90-95% fibres cross).

25

Which cranial nerves are general somatic efferent?

III, IV, VI, XII

26

Which cranial nerves are special visceral efferent?

V, VII, IX, X, XI

27

Which cranial nerves are general visceral efferent?

III, VII, IX, X

28

Which cranial nerves are general somatic afferent?

V, VII, IX, X

29

Which areas of the brainstem do the GSA fibres of the trigeminal nerve return to?

Mesencephalic trigeminal nerve
Pontine trigeminal nerve
Spinal trigeminal nerve

30

What do the SVE fibres of the trigeminal nerve innervate?

Muscles of mastication; sensory tympani, tensor veil palatini, mylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric