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Flashcards in Bravery Deck (18)
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“come fate into the list and champion me to the utterance!” 3.1

By challenging fate to a battle to manipulate his destiny shows how desperate he has become to keep the crown and is an act of defiance which results him in killing Banquo
This also highlights his arrogance and also emphasizes his controlling nature .


“ I am cabined, cribbed, confined, bound in saucy doubts and fears” 3.4

• Through the use of the semantic field of imprisonment, Shakespeare conveys how entrapped Macbeth has become which is further emphasised through the alliteration of the hard “c”, which also encapsulates the strong hold his fears have on him. This harsh alliteration coupled with the consonance of plosive sounds, complement the horrific state that Macbeth is in.


“Till Birnam Wood remove to Dusinane I cannot taint with fear.” 5.3

• His reliance on the supernatural has become such a problem that it is the cause of his hubris as well as confidence – he thinks he is invincible which enforces his fearless nature
• This could also show that he is so desperate that he uses the prophecies as his sole source of information and support
• The use of the word ‘taint’ here is ironic as taint suggests something has been corrupted. Macbeth at this point is perhaps as corrupted as one could be. This shows the audience that he is still in denial of his guilt or at least refuses to accept his wrongdoings as wrong.
• This is also repeated at the end of the scene : “I will not be afraid of death and bane till Birnam forest come to dunsinane”
• The repetition of the witches prophecy shows his certainty as well as emphasizing him absolute reliance on the supernatural. His connection to the witches his further shown through the rhyming couplets


“I’ll fight till from my bones my flesh be hacked” 5.3

• Through the verb “hacked” a grotesque and horrific image is formed in the audience mind which highlights how vigorous Macbeth’s ambition is – his power hunger is so strong that he is willing to go through intense agony which demonstrates to the audience how ambition with evil intensions distorts your mind so much that you self-inflict torment onto yourself

• This would deter the Jacobean audience from turning against the natural order.


Blow wind, come wrack, at least we’ll die with harness on our back 5.5

• The image of Macbeth wishing to die in armour symbolically shows the brave and warrior -like persona that is still within him
• By commanding “blow wind” Shakespeare draws parallels between Macbeth and the witches who were always accompanied by thunder and storm and therefore creates an ominous and eerie atmosphere similar to the witches.
• The demanding of the weather could also showcase Macbeth’s tryannical behaviour and his arrogance as he thinks that he can control the weather. His delusion could also allude to his chaotic mental state


“They have tied me to a stake; I cannot fly, but bear-like I must fight the course” 5.7

• Macbeth’s evil nature and association with the supernatural is conveyed through the words ‘stake’ and ‘fly’, commonly associated with the punishment and activity of witches. Shakespeare uses this as a metaphor for justice being enacted, as Macbeth feels he will be punished for the murderous and sly deeds he has committed.
• Macbeth recognises that he’s without options and the he will die, as displayed through “stake” which has connotations of death. His determination to still “fight the course” displays high levels of braverly linking back to how he was presented as a warrior in Act 1.


"unseasmed him from the nave to th'chaps" (1.2) (captain)

first conflicted characterization of Macbeth: a brave warrior, from his fellow soldiers' perspective, but also has extreme blood lust even for the battle standards of the time. The gruesome description is deliberately unsettling: Shakespeare introduces our "hero" as a blood-soaked killer.


"smoked with bloody execution" (1.2) (captain)

• verb "smoked", Shakespeare insinuates that Macbeth killed people so quickly , his sword has generated heat which establishes how skillful and efficient he is in battle which gives us a positive image of Macbeth as a hero.
• adjective "bloody" a gory and brutal tone is created which puts Macbeth in a negative light. This is reinforced through the noun "execution" further demonstrating Macbeth's savage behavior and gruesome nature


"Yes, as sparrow eagles, or the hare, the lion" (captain) 1.2

Macbeth's reputation on the battlefield is enhanced by the similes of the Captain's second report: 'As sparrows eagles, or the hare the lion.' In this quote Macbeth and Banquo, are compared to 'eagles' and 'lions' unafraid of the timid Norwegians, who themselves are likened to 'sparrows' or 'a hare'. The fact that Banquo and Macbeth are compared to "eagles" and lions" suggests how brave and powerful they are. Moreover, symbolically, the lion appears on the royal coat of arms of the kings of Scotland this foreshadows Macbeth becoming king.


“too full o' the milk of human kindness”

• Uses “milk” as a metaphor for feminine quality of nurturing kindness–the ironic implication being that she is far less full of that milk than he is. Therefore portraying how dominant Lady Macbeth is in the relationship which was unusual in a patriarchal society.
• Milk also represents purity which therefore implies that Macbeth is too kind and compassionate which contrasts to the descriptions of him in Act 1 scene 2 – contradiction in Macbeth’s character
• Lady Macbeth challenges conventions and critisises her husband’s masculinity


“Chastise with the valour of my tongue” 1.5

• synecdoche of ‘tongue’ suggests that her words are her source of power and ability to manipulate.
• Figuratively, abstract noun, “valour,” has connotations of defiance, bravery and fearlessness, which creates the impression that Lady Macbeth intends on defying societal norms in terms of taking control of her husband.
• This coupled with the verb, “chastise,” symbolises the power imbalance between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, which links to Macbeth being reprimanded and corrected by his wife.
• Symbolically, Lady Macbeth has taken on the role of a Machiavellian villainess; she is excessively ambitious and disrupts the Great Chain of Being, causing the audience to feel disgusted as this highlights that Lady Macbeth’s moral values are questionable and even heinous.


‘t’is the eye of childhood that fears a painted devil’ (2.2)

• Metaphor ‘eye of childhood’ implies he is being childish by not wishing to return to the chamber where the corpse lies
• The patronising and chastising done to Macbeth by Lady Macbeth reinforces the idea of the inversion of gender stereotypical roles in a relationship which echos the chaos of natural order and reminds the audience how evil Lady Macbeth is by subconsciously linking her to the witches


“My hands are of your colour; but I shame to wear a heart so white.” 2.2

Lady Macbeth uses white in reference to a cowards color-like a white feather or a flag of surrender- mocking his lack of bravery and conviction and implying how is trying to give up and run away from his actions. The way his heart is white demonstrates how she thinks he is weak and cowardly to the core and in a warrior culture like in the Jacobean period when this is set, this would be very insulting to his masculinity. The use of verb ‘wear’ implies how he is not even trying to hide it any more and she is ashamed of him for it. It may also be that his ‘white heart’ is what prevents him from ever truly committing to his ‘deep and dark desires’. Moreover, this insinuates that Lady Macbeth heart is black which further portrays her as devilish and links her to darknes


“A little water clears us of this deed” 2.2

• Stark contrast to the “Neptune quote”
• Ironic as later on in the play she is unable to wash the guilt from her hands which leads to her suicide.
• Lack of remorse


Gentlemen: “she has light by her Continually” 5.1

• Irony is employed as this starkly contrast to her attitude in Act 1 scene 5 when she commands “come thick night”
• She has now become more fearful and paranoid like her husband however Lady Macbeth has become more hysterical whiles her husband has gained more confidence and is now more powerful , therefore she is now conforming into the typical gender stereotypes which serves as a warning to the Jacobean audience that God will also restore order.


“Turn hell hound turn!” 5.8

• The fact that Macduff tells Macbeth to turn demonstrates his bravery, dignity and honour as he is willing to fight Macbeth face to face rather than kill him when he is not prepared unlike Macbeth who has killed multiple people cowardly


‘front to front bring thou this fiend of Scotland and myself’ (4.3)

• Macduff’s vow that he will be the one to kill Macbeth – role of avenger
• ‘front to front’ shows dignity – he wants to kill him in a fair ‘face-to-face’ fight. Ties to the idea of Macduff being morally virtuous.

This is in stark contrast to Macbeth who murdered Duncan in his sleep and then had other people murder Banquo and Macduff’s family for him.

• ‘fiend’ means devil so another link between Macbeth and Hell.


“I must feel it like a man” – response to Malcolm dispute it like a man (4.3)

• Malcolm shows no shame or reluctance to display sorrow and grief which challenges the widespread belief in the Jacobean era that masculinity is solely about aggression and murder. By showcasing Macduff’s misery, Shakespeare suggests that allowing oneself to be sensitive as well as feel and express emotional pain contributes to masculinity also.