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Flashcards in Breast and Thoracic Wall Deck (66)
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What structures are contained in the superior thoracic aperature?

trachea, esophagus, vessels, and nerves

1

What is the posterior border of the superior thoracic aperature?

T1 vertebra

2

What is the lateral border of the superior thoracic aperature?

first pair of ribs and their costal cartilages

3

What is the anterior border of the superior thoracic aperature?

superior border of the manubrium

4

What is considered the anatomical thoracic inlet?

superior thoracic aperature

5

What is considered the anatomical thoracic outlet?

inferior thoracic aperature

6

What is the posterior border of the inferior thoracic aperture?

T12 vertebra

7

What is the posterolateral border of the inferior thoracic aperture?

11th and 12th pairs of ribs

8

What is the anterolateral border of the inferior thoracic aperture?

joined costal cartilages of ribs 7-10, forming the costal margin

9

What is the anterior border of the inferior thoracic aperture?

xiphisternal joint

10

What are the three types of ribs?

true (vertebrosternal), false (vertebrochondral), and floating (free)

11

Which ribs are considered typical?

3-9

12

What ribs are considered atypical?

1, 2, and 10-12

13

What do costal cartilages do?

prolong the ribs anteriorly and contribute to the elasticity of the thoracic wall

14

The intercostal spaces and neurovascular structures are named according to what?

the rib forming the superior border of the space

15

Where is the subcostal space?

immediately below the 12th rib

16

What is the classification of the intervertebral joint?

symphysis

17

What is the classification of the costovertebral joint?

plane synovial

18

What is the classification of the costotransverse joint?

plane synovial

19

What is the classification of the sternocostal joint?

1st: synchondrosis
2nd-7th: plane synovial

20

What is the classification of the sternoclavicular joint?

saddle, synovial

21

What is the classification of the costochondral joint?

synchondrosis

22

What is the classification of the interchondral joint?

plane synovial

23

What is the classification of the manubriosternal joint?

symphasis

24

What is the classification of the xiphisternal joint?

synchondrosis

25

During passive expiration, the diaphragm and intercostal muscles ____, decreasing ______, and increasing ______.

relax; intrathoracic volume; intrathoracic pressure

26

What increases volume of the thorax?

inspiration

27

What happens during expiration?

intra-abdominal pressure decreases and the abdominal viscera are decompressed

28

From where does the base of the female breast extend?

transversly from the lateral border of the stenum to the anterior axillary line; vertically from the 2nd-6th ribs

29

What do suspensory ligaments do?

firmly attach mammary glands to the dermis of overlying skin; help support mammary gland lobules

30

What drains the mammary lobules?

lactiferous ducts

31

What are the arteries of the breast?

medial mammary branches of perforating branches, anterior intercostal branches of the internal thoracic artery, mammary branches of lateral thoracic and thoraco-acromial arteries, and posterior intercostal arteries

32

Posterior intercostal arteries branch from where?

thoracic aorta in the intercostal spaces

33

What is the venous drainage of the breast?

mainly to the axillary vein, some to internal thoracic vein

34

Why is lymphatic drainage of the breast important?

its role in the metastasis of cancer cells

35

Most lymph, especially from the lateral quadrants of the breast, drain where?

axillary lymph nodes

36

Lymph from the medial quadrants of the breast drain where?

parasternal lymph nodes

37

Lymph from the inferior breast quadrants drain where?

abdominal lymph nodes

38

Lymph from axillary nodes drain where?

subclavian lymphatic trunk

39

Lymph from the parasternal nodes drain where?

bronchomediastinal trunks

40

From where are nerves of the breast derived?

anterior and lateral cutaneous branches of the 4th to 6th intercostal nerves

41

What muscles may act as accessory muscles of respiration?

pectoralis major and minor, inferior part of the serratus anterior, and scalene muscles

42

The superficial layer of intercostal space is formed by what?

external intercostal muscles (infero-anteriorly)

43

The middle layer of intercostal space is formed by what?

internal intercostal muscles (inferoposteriorly)

44

The deep layer of intercostal space is formed by what?

innermost intercostal muscles

45

External intercostal muscles are replaced anteriorly by what?

external intercostal membranes

46

What replaces internal intercostal muscles posteriorly?

internal intercostal membranes

47

What forms intercostal nerves?

anterior rami of T1-T11

48

What forms the subcostal nerves?

anterior rami of T12

49

What do posterior rami of thoracic spinal nerves innervate?

bones, joints, deep back muscles, and skin of the back in the thoracic region

50

What nerves are considered typical intercostal nerves?

3rd-6th

51

Where are the lateral cutaneous branches of intercostal nerves found?

internal surface of the internal intercostal muscle

52

Where are the anterior cutaneous branches of intercostal nerves found?

passing between the costal cartilages and entering the subcutaneous tissue

53

What nerves are considered atypical intercostal nerves?

1st and 2nd, and 7th-11th

54

TRUE or FALSE?
Complete loss of sensation usually does not occur unless two or more intercostal nerves are anesthtized.

true

55

What is the function of rami communicantes?

to connect each intercostal and subcostal nerve to the ipsilateral sympathetic trunk

56

What supplies each intercostal space?

large posterior intercostal artery and a small pair of anterior intercostal arteries

57

What makes up the intervertebral joint?

adjacent vertebral bodies bound together by intervertebral disc

58

What makes up the costovertebral joint?

head of rib with superior demifacet or costal facet of corresponding vertebral body and inferior demifacet of vertebral body superior to it

59

What makes up the costotransverse joint?

tubercle of rib with transverse process of corresponding vertebra

60

What makes up the sternocostal joint?

1st: 1st costal cartilage with manubrium of sternum
2nd-7th: 2nd-7th pairs of costal cartilages with sternum

61

What makes up the sternoclavicular joint?

sternal end of clavicle with manubrium and 1st costal cartilage

62

What makes up the costochondral joint?

lateral end of costal cartilage with sternal end of rib

63

What makes up the interchondral joint?

articulation between costal cartilages of 6th-7th, 7th-8th, and 8th-9th ribs

64

What makes up the manubriosternal joint?

manubrium and body of sternum

65

What make up the xiphisternal joint?

xiphoid process and body of sternum