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Flashcards in Breeding Exam/Management Deck (39)
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1
Q

What testicular orientation is normal for bulls, rams, and bucks?

A

(Pendulous/vertical)

2
Q

What testicular orientation is normal for stallions and dogs?

A

(Craniocaudal/horizontal)

3
Q

What testicular orientation is normal for boars and toms?

A

(Cranioventral/oblique)

4
Q

(T/F) Scrotal size = sperm output.

A

(T)

5
Q

Of the species listed below, which do not have all four accessory sex glands (vesicular glands, prostate, BUGs, and ampulla) and which gland are they missing?

Bovine
Ovine
Equine
Caprine
Porcine

A

(Porcine, missing ampulla)

6
Q

Volume and sperm concentration should only be evaluated when the sperm is collected by which method?

A

(Artificial vagina)

7
Q

When evaluating sperm, what test should be performed first as it is time (and also temperature) sensitive?

A

(Sperm motility)

8
Q

Is primary or secondary sperm abnormalities related to spermatogenesis occuring in the testis?

A

(Primary)

9
Q

Is sperm motility or morphology more critical to determining the overall fertility of a male?

A

(Morphology)

10
Q

If you are categorizing sperm morphology with the primary versus secondary categories and you found lots of sperm with detached heads, distal droplets, and mild tail defects, where (anatomically) does this indicate the issue is located and is it primary or secondary?

A

(The epididymis so an insult during maturation and/or storage, this is a secondary abnormality; primary abnormalities come from the testes and will result in head, midpiece and severe tail defects)

11
Q

What is the primary purpose of dairy breeding management?

A

(Year-round production of milk)

12
Q

The goal of dairy breeding management is to maintain a how many month long calving interval per cow?

A

(13 months)

13
Q

What is the term for the set amount of time postpartum that an animal is not being bred, that is typically 60-80 days in dairy cows, which allows for the uterus to recover and allows for the cow to achieve a positive energy balance as well as resume cycling?

A

(Voluntary wait period)

14
Q

What is the primary purpose of beef breeding management?

A

(Sale of calves at weaning)

15
Q

If you are aiming for spring calving, when should breeding occur for beef cows?

A

(Breeding should occur May-August)

16
Q

If you are aiming for fall calving, when should breeding occur for beef cows?

A

(December-January)

17
Q

What is the equation for pregnancy rate?

A

(PR = HDR x CR; HDR is heat detection rate and CR is conception rate)

18
Q

In relation to estrous control, if you wanted to shorten the luteal phase what hormone would you administer?

A

(Prostaglandin; lutalyse/dinoprost or estrumate/cloprostenol)

19
Q

In relation to estrous control, if you wanted to lengthen the luteal phase what hormone would you administer?

A

(Progesterone (progestins))

20
Q

Cows need to be at least how many days into diestrus for the administration of prostaglandins to work?

A

(5 days)

21
Q

What is the basic purpose of administering GnRH agonists?

A

(‘Resetting’ the follicular wave → if GnRH agonists are administering after a dominant follicle has been selected, it will trigger ovulation and a new wave always follows ovulation by 1.5-2 days)

22
Q

Is ovsynch or cosynch used for dairy cattle?

A

(Ovsynch)

23
Q

Give the general timeline for ovsynch, including meds administered and timed AI.

A

(Day 0 - GnRH; day 7 - PGF; day 9 - GnRH; day 10/11 - timed AI)

24
Q

Give the general timeline for cosynch, including meds administered and timed AI.

A

(Day 0 - GnRH; day 7 - PGF; day 10/11 - GnRH and timed AI)

25
Q

Does increased melatonin inhibit or stimulate (choose one) the hypothalamus to release GnRH in small ruminants?

A

(Stimulate)

26
Q

What is a silent ovulation (which is what occurs when using the male effect in small ruminants to try and shorten the transition phase)?

A

(An ovulation that occurs with no apparent estrous behavior (this occurs because there was no progesterone during anestrus so estrogen receptors are not upregulated in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland))

27
Q

(T/F) Small ruminants must be in season for administration of prostaglandin to work.

A

(T)

28
Q

What is the purpose of the change in the stratified squamous epithelium of the vagina in response to estrogen?

A

(Preparation for breeding/trauma)

29
Q

Which of the following is not true about a proestrus vaginal cytology?

A. Will see less superficial epithelial cells (corn flakes, large angular cells with small/no nuclei) than you would see during estrus
B. There will be RBCs present
C. There will be WBCs present that will increase throughout proestrus
D. Will see debris in the background

A

(C - WBCs should decrease in amount as your progress through proestrus to estrus)

30
Q

Is an estrus or diestrus vaginal cytology characterized by parabasalar cells and lots of neutrophils?

A

(Diestrus; estrus is >90% superficial epithelial cells)

31
Q

What hormones and approximate levels of those hormones (rising/falling/etc.) are necessary for a bitch to produce standing behavior during estrus?

A

(Estrogen that is beginning to fall and progesterone that is beginning to rise)

32
Q

How many days after ovulation is considered peak fertility in a bitch?

A

(3-4 days)

33
Q

How many days after the first visualization of serosanguinous fluid from the vulva in a bitch should progesterone testing begin?

A

(5-7 days)

34
Q

When should a bitch and a dog be tested for canine brucellosis?

A

(Bitch - every cycle she is bred; dog - every 3-6 months if active or prior to any breeding if not actively used)

35
Q

What tests would you use in an animal with an acute canine brucellosis infection? Two answers.

A

(PCR or culture; if screening you want an antibody test)

36
Q

What do you expect the uterine and cervical tone to be in a mare that is in diestrus per a rectal palpation?

A

(Both should be firm d/t progesterone)

37
Q

What do you expect the uterine and cervical tone to be in a mare that is in estrus per a rectal palpation?

A

(Uterine tone - moderate; cervical - relaxed and soft)

38
Q

If you are artificially inseminating a mare with fresh or cooled semen, when should they be inseminated in relation to ovulation?

A

(1-2 days prior to ovulation)

39
Q

If you are artificially inseminating a mare with frozen semen, when should they be inseminated in relation to ovulation?

A

(12 hours prior or 6 hours post)